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Friday, 18 October 2013

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum syn)

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum syn) is a plant belonging to the family Solanaceae, native plants of Central and South America, from Mexico to Peru. Tomato is a plant with a short life cycle, can grow as high as 1 to 3 meters. Tomato is a close relative of the potato. Tomato is a fruit that is more often used as a fruit vegetable that is very famous and be a part of the dining table anywhere in the world. Originate from subtropical climates in South America, but now has spread throughout the world.

According to the article, by Andrew F. Smith's "The Tomato in America,” the tomato probably originated from the highlands of the west coast of South America. After Spanish colonized South America, they spread the tomato plants into their colonies in the Caribbean. Spanish also brought the tomato to the Philippines then, is the starting point for the spread to other areas in the entire continent of Asia. Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. This plant grows easily in temperate regions of the Mediterranean.

Characteristic of the tree:

• Roots

Has two types of tomato roots as well, namely a). taproot: grow through both land and b) hairy roots: growing spread sideways, but shallow on the surface of the ground.

• Trunk

Tomato plant stems or rectangular to round, soft but strong enough trunked, hairy or smooth-haired and between the feathers are hair glands. Green colored plant stems. In the thickened stem segments and the bottom segment grows short roots, in addition to branching stems of tomato plants and branches of larger diameter when compared with other vegetable crops.

• Leaves

Tomato plant leaves are oval, serrated leaf edges and cracks forming pinnate and slightly curved inward. Green colored leaves and an odd compound leaves of about 3-6 cm. Among the large leaves usually grow 1-2 leaves are small. Compound leaves on tomato plants grown arranged alternately or spiral around the stem of the plant.

• Flowers

Tomato flowers are small, about 2 cm in diameter and colored bright yellow, numbered 5 petals and green fruit found in the most beautiful part of the flower color is bright yellow tomatoes amounted to 6 pieces. Tomato flowers are perfect flowers for pollen or pollen and anthers or stamens head formed at the same rate.

• Fruits

Tomato fruit shape varies, depending on varieties there is a round, slightly rounded, somewhat oval and ovate (oval). Fruit size also varies, the smallest weighs 8 grams and has a great weight of 180 grams. Young fruit colored light green, to red when ripe. His skin is always smooth, slick and shiny.

Tomato fruit has several varieties, among others, namely;

a. Regular tomato (L. commune)

Flat round fruit shape and grooved-groove near the stems and soft, tomatoes are widely grown by farmers and easily available in the market.

b. Apple tomato (L. pyriform)

Round fruit shape, sturdy and tough little bit like apples. Tomato is a crossbreed apples of various kinds of tomato fruit are large and heavy.

c. Potato tomato (L. grandiforlum)

Slightly oval fruit shape and hard, its leaf curling, lush and dark green colored. Tomato varieties of them Geraldton smooth skin and Indian river, is widely grown varieties of ground plateau-fruiting tomato varieties are among "Money Maker", which is a bit wild resistant to wilt disease and rainwater.

Nutrition :

Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world . They contain the carotene lycopene , one of the most powerful natural antioxidants . In some studies , lycopene , especially in cooked tomatoes , has been found to help prevent prostate cancer , but other studies contradict this statement Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect the skin from harmful UV rays A study conducted by researchers at Manchester and Newcastle universities revealed that tomatoes can protect against the sun's rays and help keep skin looking young . Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic genes that produce lycopene , carotene , anthocyanin , and other antioxidants . Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C ( Doublerich ) , 40 times normal vitamin A ( 97L97 ) , high levels of anthocyanin (resulting in blue tomatoes ) , and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene ( many cultivars are available with high red gene ) .

Scientific classification:

  • Kingdom        : Plantae (Plants)
  • Subkingdom   : Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  • Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  • Division          : Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  • Class              : Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  • Sub Class       : Asteridae
  • Order             : Solanales
  • Family             : Solanaceae (tribe eggplants)
  • Genus             : Solanum
  • Species           : Solanum lycopersicum