Follow my blog with Bloglovin Worldwide Fruits List: Oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki).

Sunday, 13 October 2013

Oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki).

Physically this fruit is look like apple, unlike apple the outer skin of this fruit covered by a kind of flour like face powder. So, in some Southeast Asian countries this fruit sometimes named as the flirty fruit (because using face powder).

This fruit is native to China and others Far East Asia Countries like Japan. However, now spread already around South East Asia Countries. In South East Asia persimmon cultivation is still very rare, so what is available in the market is highly dependent on the outcome of the plants that grow from the fields of the population that generally grow wild. However, because this fruit is a seasonal fruit, we can see abundant amounts in the markets in countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries.

The Japanese cultivar 'Hachiya' is widely grown. "Sharon fruit" (named originally after the Sharon plain in Israel) is an Israeli-bred cultivar of the D. kaki fruit. The cultivar is called 'Triumph'. As with all pollination-variant-astringent persimmons, the fruit are ripened off the tree by exposing them to carbon dioxide. The sharon fruit has no core, is seedless, particularly sweet, and can be eaten whole.

The American Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) is native to the eastern United States, its fruit is traditionally eaten in a special steamed pudding in the Midwest and sometimes its timber is used as a substitute for ebony (e.g. in instruments).

Characteristic of the tree:

Persimmon tree is small to medium, 15 m or less, dioecious but sometimes monoecious, trunked short and crooked, many branches, leaves and abort. Persimmon plant is an annual plant. Can grow well in the yard, the yard, the edge of the moor, the edge of the road, on the river bank, or both cultivated in monoculture and intercropping with other crops, generally persimmon trees tolerant of varieties of soil types. The recommended soil acidity is pH between 5.5 - 6.5.

Plants grown from seed, this tree has a taproot, whereas a plant from vegetative propagation does not have a taproot. Persimmon plant roots are not far from the ground, which is about 20 cm or more. Most of them have a setting away from the soil surface is easy to grow buds.

Persimmon root is brownish; it is also a part of instrumental in the propagation. Naturally, during the rainy season many roots buds grows, and in addition it is also a lot of growing new plants from the base of the persimmon plant roots, especially those that have mature. Such behavior provides opportunities for plant propagation of persimmon with root cuttings techniques, this technique also applied for propagation of breadfruit plants whose fruits have no seeds. 

Stem color is green when young but change to brownish dull after dark. Young stems, primarily the ones who come from the shoots can be used as plant propagation material by stem cuttings. Bark surface feels smooth when young and old feels a bit rough after.

Persimmon plant leaves have a sharp tip and base, simple, oval, up to 15 cm long and 10 cm wide, with a length of about 2 cm stalk. Persimmon leaf have boned formed like a fish spines.

Plain edge leaf shape, leaf surface is rather rough. Young leaves seem a little weak, old leaves stiff. While still in its infancy, leaves will light green or yellowish. Young leaves that decorate the plant make an impression as a new crop plants that are starting to grow. At the time, the leaves are grown plants look green or dark green, shiny, and plants look more solid. 

In the tropics, plant persimmon leaf color changes are not very noticeable, ie when young pale green or yellowish, after mature dark green, and then yellow as the plant leaves will fall, the leaves turn yellow persimmon evolve as shaded, then became orange and red.

In the subtropics, usually persimmon flowers have appeared in March, while in tropical regions such as Indonesia's new persimmon flowers appear in September and October. Sometimes, there are aftershocks flowers in early April. If it happened, so this is a superior trait or adaptation to the environment, then it deserves to be observed and used as a source of plant propagation that capable to fruit twice a year, especially in the areas concerned.

Persimmon flowers emerge from the armpit leaves that have been and are being grown from the twig. The persimmon flower formation takes place concurrently with the formation of new leaves. Flower formation mechanism is influenced by plant physiology.

At the time the leaves still look green or yellowish, in fact there has been emerging flower prospective, single, or sequential, in the armpit leaves on the twigs of plants. Thus on one branch there is only one possible flowers candidate, while at the other branches are many potential interest. On one branch there will probably rise one flower, two flowers and even was able to raise more than three flowers.

Persimmon flowers there are three kinds, namely the male flowers, female flowers and perfect flowers. Male flowers and female flowers usually emerge from different plants. Male flowering plant male and female flowering female plants. Sometimes, the male plants produce perfect flowers and female flowers. Male flowers are in groups of three flowers, in axillary panicles. Male flowers have 4 petals and 24 stamens that are on two rows.

Female flowers, single, have four separate leaves petals, petals colored grayish white or pale yellow, 8 stamens that are not fully developed, and will be a round fruit, stalk-related stigma and anthers. Usually on the branches are 1-5 female flowers, or even more. 

Perfect flower is a combination of both, which have pollen and pistil, so as to generate a typical fruit. The fruit is usually relatively large size, have a seed, has a stronger taste.

The Fruits and it’s Seed:

Many that are parthenocarpic persimmon, seedless fruit that is formed because no preparation, however, in fact, the persimmon crop cultivation is necessary to pollen for getting optimal production. On flower pollination occurs, will produce fruit that contains the seeds and will have a larger size and has a different flavor and texture. Therefore, many varieties are parthenocarpic persimmon; most do not have a persimmon seed.

Persimmon fruit, the base is covered by a sheath attached. Shape of each persimmon cultivars varied, from the shape of the ball, oval, up to the base of a rather flat, and rectangular. Persimmon peels thin, soft, shiny, yellow, orange, red, brownish red. Fruit flesh is yellow orange, dark brown, watery and soft. Before ripe persimmon taste bitter (astringent), but when fully ripe fruit, flesh became soft, and sweet, for those who do not astringent fruit, can be eaten straight, although not yet fully ripe.

Compared to apples, persimmons have higher levels of dietary fiber, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron and manganese, but lower levels of copper and zinc. They also contain vitamin C and provitamin A beta-carotene (Nutrient table, right).

Persimmon fruits contain phytochemicals, such as catechin and gallocatechin, as well as compounds under preliminary research for potential anti-cancer activity, such as betulinic acid. Persimmon fruit can be consumed directly when it is really ripe, or made other preparations such as candied fruit and dried.

Scientific Classification:
  • Kingdom: Plantae
  • Division: Spermatophyta
  • Subdivisio: Angiospermae
  • Class: Magnoliopsida
  • Subclasses: Dilleniidae
  • Order: Ebenales
  • Family: Ebenaceae
  • Genus: Diospyros
  • Species: Diospyros feet L.f.