Follow my blog with Bloglovin Worldwide Fruits List: October 2013

Tuesday, 22 October 2013

Pangium edule or keluak or keluwak or pucung

The seeds
Pangium edule is a tall tree native to the rivers banks and mangrove swamps of Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea). The fruit of Pangium edule has its native name keluak, keluwak, pucung, or picung in Indonesia and kepayang in Malay. Pangium edule fruit is a large poisonous fruit, however, through the fermentation process, local residents of the area can change the fruit seeds become an important part of the region's culinary.

Characteristic of the tree:

Kluwek or kepayang is a straight trunked tree; capable of reaching 60 feet high with a trunk diameter of up to 120 cm. Branches are not too tight. The leaves are heart-shaped, with a width of 15 cm. and length 20-cm. dark green and shiny on top, while the bottom is rather whitish and slightly hairy.

This plant grows in the wet tropical rainforest and is a native plant that grows from Southeast Asia to the western Pacific. Kepayang Flacourtiaceae family member who is able to grow in the lowlands up to an altitude of 1,500 m above sea level.

This tree has a taproot, strong and buttresses. While the woody stem, whitish green to gray, round shape and has haired young branches. The plants begin to bear fruit at the age of 6-10 years continuously, especially during the rainy season. 

Kepayang or keluwek (Pangium edule) flowers grown in twig, greenish white, similar to papaya flowers. Flower-shaped is bunches and the crown has a length of 5-8 cm.

Kepayang fruit is elliptical with a tapered tip and base portion, a length of 30 cm and width 20-cm. Kepayang fruit shape like a rugby ball or American football. Fruit skin color is brown, with a slightly hairy surface.

White flesh and soft. A very hard shell, asymmetrical shape, protects Kepayang seed; with a size of 3-4 cm. Seed shell has a texture with blackish brown color. Shell thickness between three sd. 4 mm. Very white flesh colored seeds. Traditionally used by humans is a fruit seed meat, of course after the fermentation process. 

The content and Utilization:

As the name suggests, this plant is able to make people become kepayang (drunk or hungover). This is because, particularly seeds, contain high concentrations of cyanide. Cyanide addition, several other chemical constituents contained in the fruit kepayang (Pangium edule), including vitamin C, iron ions, beta-carotene, hidnokarpat acid, acid khaulmograt, glorat acid, and tannins. 

Seed and the pulp after fermentation
Various substances that make the kepayang, keluwek, Picung or Pangium edule has a wide range of benefits and uses, such as julienne materials (rods), anthelmintic (leaf), antiseptic, bug remover, preservatives, and material for oil (seeds).

Kepayang fruit has another major benefit that is as important herbs in Indonesia and Malaysia: Rawon (Black Soup) is one of the favorite dishes of Indonesia are in absolute need to the seeds of this fruit as the marinade.

To eliminate cyanide acid content, fruit kepayang or kluwek (Pangium edule) which have matured and fallen from a tree collected in a sack and left wet by the rain or even soaked in water within 10-14 days. The fermentation process occurs in the process and content of beef stew with beans will change from white to black.

Substances and essential vitamins in fruit seeds kluwek:

Vitamin C, iron ions, beta-carotene, acid cyanide (poisonous nature, easily evaporate at a temperature of 26 degrees Celsius, if inhaled can lead to the death of animals, safe for fish preservation), hydnocarpate acid, chaulmoogras acid, chlorate Acid and Tannins (as preservative fish).

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz):
(Source: USDA Nutrient Database)
  • Energy 462 kJ (110 kcal)
  • Carbohydrates 23.9 g
  • - Sugars 14.1 g
  • - Dietary fiber 6.2 g
  • Fat 2 g
  • Protein 2.3 g
  • Vitamin A equiv. 19 µg (2%)
  • - beta-carotene 230 µg (2%)
  • Vitamin C 25.8 mg (31%)
  • Calcium 15 mg (2%)
  • Iron 2.2 mg (17%)
  • Magnesium 32 mg (9%)
  • Manganese 0.155 mg (7%)
  • Phosphorus 52 mg (7%)
  • Potassium 151 mg (3%)
  • Sodium 4 mg (0%)
  • Zinc 0.43 mg (5%)

Scientific classification:

  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •    Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •       Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •          Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •            Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •               Sub Class: Dilleniidae
  •                 Order: Violales
  •                    Family: Flacourtiaceae
  •                      Genus: Pangium
  •                         Species: Pangium edule

Monday, 21 October 2013

Leucaena leucocephala or Lead Tree

Leucaena leucocephala or Guage (Mexico); wild tamarind (Corozal, Belize); lead tree (Florida); lamtoro (Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea); ipil ipil (Philippines); jumby bean (Bahamas); false koa, koa haole (Hawaii); tangantangan, tangan tangan, talantayan (Guam, Marshall Islands); talntangan, ganitnityuwan tangantan (Yap); tuhngantuhngan, rohbohtin (Kosrae); telentund (Palau); lopa samoa (American Samoa); fua pepe (American Samoa and Samoa); lusina (Samoa); pepe (Niue and Samoa); nito (Cook Islands); siale mohemohe (Tonga); subabul (India); vaivai (Fiji); cassis (Vanuatu); te kaitetua (Kiribati); kay keo dâu (Vietnam), is a kind of shrub of the legume tribes (Leguminosae, legumes), which is often used in reforestation or erosion prevention. Originated from tropical America, this plant has introduced hundreds of years to Southeast Asia.

In Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia's fruit (locally called Leucaena) used as food and herbal medicines, although in limited quantities. The main use of this tree is for reforestation of degraded land and the wood used for firewood.

Characteristic of the tree:

This tree likes warm tropical climate (daily temperature of 25-30 ° C); altitudes above 1000 m asl may inhibit growth. This plant is fairly drought-tolerant and can be planted everywhere, including in areas with rainfall between 650-3000 mm (optimal 800-1500 mm) per year. However, these plants can not grow in standing water.

Can be grown in any soil condition, easy to adapt to the local climate, easily propagated by seeds that are old, stem cuttings, and with the removal of saplings. Because it is easy to grow, in many places often become rampant weeds. This plant was easy to grow; once pruned, felled or burned, bud-shoots will grow back in large quantities.

Trees or tall shrubs to 20 m; although most only about 2-10 m. Low and much branched, with brownish or grayish, nodule and have lenticels. Branches round the piston, with the tip of the hair tightly.

The leaves are compound and pinnate shaped copies, numbered 3-10 pairs of fins, mostly with glands on the leaf axis, just before the base of the bottom fin; the leaves fulcrum is small, triangular shape. Leaflets 5-20 pairs of each fin, face, the shape is elongated line, 6-16 mm × 1-2 mm, with a pointed tip and base is sloping (not equal), its surface is smooth-haired and frayed edges. The Leaves are bloom at night and closes its leaves at noon.

The flowers are compound form of long-stemmed excrescence, which gathered in panicles contain 2-6 excrescence; each nodule composed of 100-180 flowers, forming white or yellowish balls 12-21 mm in diameter, on top of the stalk 2-5 cm long. Flowers small, amounted respectively-5 for each; petal tube toothed short bell shape, about 3 mm, crown shape, lk. 5 mm, loose-loose. Stamen 10 strands, about 1 cm, separated.

Ribbon-shaped fruit pods straight, flat, and thin, 14-26 cm × 2 cm, with the boundaries between the grains. Green colors of the outer skin and finally greenish brown or dark brown when dry and when ripe the skin covering the seeds will break itself. Each pod contains 15-30 pieces of Leucaena leucocephala seed that lies crosswise in legumes, egg-shaped round eggs breech or upside down, with shiny dark brown color measuring 6-10 mm × 3 to 4.5 mm. The seeds resemble petai fruit, but smaller.


Leaves, flower buds and young pods ordinary engulfed in raw or cooked first. In some parts of Indonesia, the seeds are roasted as a coffee substitute parents, with aroma of coffee tougher. The seeds are already quite old, but not blackened, used as a kind of mixture of local salad there. Young fruit can also be used as a vegetable. The seeds can also be processed into soy substitute with soy nutrition are almost equal. The leaves are also often used as mulch and green manure, the leaves of this tree is decomposed quickly in soil.

The trunk is highly preferred as a wood fire, because it has a calorific value of 19,250 kJ / kg, with a slow burn and produce less smoke and ash. Wood charcoal is very good quality, with a calorific value of 48,400 kJ / kg. Solid wood is included for quickly growing tree size (density of 500-600 kg / m³) and wet wood moisture content between 30-50%, depending on age. The wood is fairly easily drained with good results, and easily processed. Unfortunately, that rarely has a big trunk size; boles are generally short and many knots, because this tree was much branching. The wood is reddish or golden brown, medium textured, hard enough and strong as wood furnishings, furniture, poles or floor coverings.

The leaves and young twigs of this tree utilized as an animal feed and a good source of protein, especially for ruminants. The leaves have a level of 60 to 70% digestion in ruminants, the highest among the types of legumes and other tropical forage

Scientific classification:
  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Rosidae
  •                           Order: Fabales
  •                               Family: Fabaceae (legumes tribe)
  •                                   Genus: Leucaena
  •                                       Species: Leucaena leucocephala

Sunday, 20 October 2013

Pisum sativum (Pea)

Pisum sativum (Pea) is an annual plant, with a life cycle of one year. This area is cold and plants grown in different parts of the world, planting can take place from winter to early summer depending on location. For the tropical type of pea is grown in areas of high, which is cool, this plant produce peas, when young will be used as fresh vegetables, especially in Asian countries.

The nuts grow wild within the Mediterranean basin and the Near East. Note that the archaeological data, peas has existed since the end of the Neolithic period in the region that is now known as Greece, Syria, Turkey, and Jordan. In Egypt, found the initial date of 4800 - 4400 BC in the Nile delta area, and from ca. 3800-3600 BC in Upper Egypt. Nuts are also present in Georgia in the 5th millennium BC. Peas are present in Afghanistan 2000 BC, in Harappa, Pakistan, and in northwest India in 2250-1750 BC. In the second half of the second millennium BC, this pulse crop appears in the Ganges basin and southern India.

Characteristic of the tree:

Peas or snow peas (Pisum sativum L. ssp. Sativum, the tribe of legumes or Fabaceae) is a kind of vegetable plants are easy to find in markets. Peas belonging to the vegetable fruits, meaning the fruit is eaten as a vegetable and are not classed as fruits, like tomatoes or peppers. This fruit, which is of type pod (legume), harvested when the seeds are still young and not yet full bloom, so that the flat-shaped and are still soft. In the use of these beans as a vegetable, if harvested too old then it will be a thick fibrous, and no longer suitable for consumption.

Peas is still is one of the earliest vegetables consumed by humans. In Asia, there is some evidence of cultivation in the border of Thailand and Myanmar 12 thousand years ago. Pea plants, which grow well in the highlands, grow vines that require support in conducting.

This plant includes seasonal crops in the form of shrubs and vines. The morphology, peas have long stems, small and slender, leaf type compound, pinnate with 2-3 pairs of young leaves, shaped bunches consisting of 1-2 flowers, green petals, leaves consist of 5 petals, numbered petals 5, white, brown, or pink, totaling ten stamens which are divided into 2 files. Ovary consists of 4 -15 ovule.

Pea outer skin color (either the outer skin of fruit and seeds) are usually green, but sometimes there is also a purple or golden yellow, pod-shaped vegetable, widely grown as a winter vegetable crops.

Nutritional value: Consumption of peas is recommended because it contains a number of compounds that are important for the body. The nuts contain a certain amount of energy with details of kilocalories, protein, phosphorus, calcium, carbohydrates, iron, some fat, vitamin A, vitamin B (riboflavin, folic acid, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine), vitamin C, vitamin K, magnesium and many others. Given its content-rich, pea is very good to eat. Its content of vitamin K can activate osteocalcin were berepran in calcium binding. Thus, we will avoid osteoporosis.

Another benefit is as a pea or anti-inflammatory compounds known as anti-inflammatory, especially for those who suffer from asthma, arthritis, IBS or Irritable Bowel Syndrome is also uric acid. For those who have a cold, snow peas consumption will help reduce the effects of the flu.

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz):

Energy 339 kJ (81 kcal), Carbohydrates 14.45 g, - Sugars 5.67 g, - Dietary fiber 5.1 g, Fat 0.4 g, Protein 5.42 g, Vitamin A equiv. 38 μg (5%), - beta-carotene 449 μg (4%), - lutein and zeaxanthin 2477 μg, Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.266 mg (23%), Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.132 mg (11%), Niacin (vit. B3) 2.09 mg (14%), Vitamin B6 0.169 mg (13%), Folate (vit. B9) 65 μg (16%), Vitamin C 40 mg (48%), Vitamin E 0.13 mg (1%), Vitamin K 24.8 μg (24%), Calcium 25 mg (3%), Iron 1.47 mg (11%), Magnesium 33 mg (9%), Manganese 0.41 mg (20%), Phosphorus 108 mg (15%), Potassium 244 mg (5%), Sodium 5 mg (0%), Zinc 1.24 mg (13%). (Source: USDA Nutrient Database)

Scientific Classification:

  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  • Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  • Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  • Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  • Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  • Sub Class: Rosidae
  • Order: Fabales
  • Family: Fabaceae (legumes tribe)
  • Genus: Pisum
  • Species: Pisum sativum L.

Saturday, 19 October 2013

Bilimbi or Averrhoa bilimbi

Bilimbi or Averrhoa bilimbi, originated to Moluccas, Indonesia, the species are now cultivated and found throughout the South East Asia region like Philippines, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar (Burma) and Malaysia. It is also common in other Southeast Asian countries. In India, where it is usually found in gardens, the bilimbi has gone wild in the warmest regions of the country.

Outside of Asia, the tree is cultivated in Zanzibar. In 1793, the bilimbi was introduced to Jamaica from Timor and after several years, was cultivated throughout Central and South America where it is known as mimbro. Introduced to Queensland at the end of the 19th century, it has been grown commercially in the region since that time.

Characteristic of the tree:

Small tree, reaching 10 m tall with a trunk that is not so big and has a diameter only about 30 cm. Trunk bumpy and uneven. Bilimbi has a bumpy rough trunk , branching slightly , leaning over him . Young branches velvety smooth haired , light brown color . Bilimbi rods contain saponins , tannins , glucoside , calcium oxalate , sulfur , formic acid .

Bilimbi leaves are compound leaves along 30-60 cm with 11-45 pairs of leaflets. The leaves are green, short-stemmed, oval to oblong with a rather pointy tip, base rounded, flat leaf edge, length 2-10 cm, width 1-3 cm. Bilimbi leaves contain tannins , sulfur , formic acid and peroxide .

Flowering is in the form of malai, a group, out of the trunk or large branches, flower-shaped reddish purple color. The fruit Buni, faceted oval shape, 4 to 6.5 ern long, yellowish green color, when ripe juicy, sour taste. Seeds ovoid shape, flattened. Taste sour fruit, used as a refresher syrup, flavoring dishes, clean the stains on cloth, polish items made of brass, cleaning dirty hands or as a traditional medicine. Propagation by seed and transplants. 

Planted as a fruit tree, sometimes growing wild and are found from the lowlands to 500 m above sea level.

Nutritional value for 100 g of edible portion : 
Moisture 94.2-94.7 g, Protein 0.61 g, Ash 0.31-0.40 g, Fiber 0.6g, Phosphorus 11.1 mg, Calcium 3.4 mg, Iron 1.01 mg, Thiamine 0.010 mg, Riboflavin 0.026 mg, Carotene 0.035 mg, Ascorbic Acid 15.5 mg, Niacin 0.302 mg.

Scientific classification:

  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  • Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  • Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  • Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  • Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  • Sub Class: Rosidae
  • Order: Geraniales
  • Family: Oxalidaceae (rate-belimbingan starfruit)
  • Genus: Averrhoa
  • Species: Averrhoa bilimbi

Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis)

Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), is the geographical origin and spread of South America and Central America. However, has been widely planted in the southern United States since prehistoric times, and have been found at archaeological sites in Mexico dated 3000 years BC. Now this bean has been commonly grown throughout the tropics.

The legume seeds produce a kind of bean that can be used as a source of vegetable protein can be processed in various types of processed foods, although presently, cultivation is not so intensive.

Characteristic of the tree:

Jack bean can adapt well in the humid tropics, but also can survive in periods of drought. These beans can be grown in areas with an annual rainfall ranges from 700-4000 mm. Although Jack bean is a low-lying plant but can also be grown at altitudes up to 1800 m., Best growth in full sunlight but have moderate shade tolerance. These beans tolerant to a variety of soil conditions including acid and covers a land area of arid tropics but are less affected by lack of water or salt content compared with other nuts.

Liana short-lived annual with a deep root system, or creeping shrub with twisted lengths of up to 2-3 m. Accordance with age, stems become woody. Branching growth on the lowest book and some secondary branches also grow.

Leaves alternate, consisting of 3 strands, 11-17 cm long petiole; leaves oblong-shaped round eggs, measuring 5-20 cm x 3-12 cm, tapered or rounded and taper at the top, rarely covered with short hairs on both surfaces , the veins appear and spy nets.

Mauve colored flower to purple, or sometimes white, came out with bunches in the armpit with a swell book which underpins 1-3 flowers on long flower stalks with 2-5 mm. Stems 10-35 cm long bunches, bunches up to 20 cm long, oblong pods, measuring 15-35 cm x 3-3.5 cm, containing 8-20 seeds, each valve with rib hem and there is an extra rib underneath. Seeds elliptical, measuring approximately 21 mm x 15 mm x 10 mm, ivory or white, with long brown hilum 6-9 mm.

Benefits of Jack Bean:

These beans are traditionally used as animal feed, the tree is widely planted as a cover crop, or planted for green manure in rotation with other crops. For fodder, the beans are usually dried before it is given as a livestock feed and can also be stored for inventory. Ripened seeds, then ground and used as a solid food at the farm. Half- ripe seeds are mixed with grain used to feed livestock in Hawaii.

Young seeds and pods are used as a vegetable for human food. 

Mature seeds with boiled or baked foods commonly eaten as tasty in Indonesia, but excluding Japan and tropical Asia, this species are now grown as crops for human food, although the numbers are still small. Seeds are usually burned and ground as coffee mixture. In Indonesia, flowers and young leaves steamed and used as flavorings. Urease is distilled from the seeds is used in the analysis in the laboratory. In Indonesia and China, beans and peas are heated and used as a medicine has been alleged that some of the basic content of the beans may be used for treatment purposes or for pest control.

The common Jack bean is also a source of the lectin concanavalin A, which is used as a reagent in glycoprotein biochemistry and immunology.

Scientific classification:

  • Kingdom: Plantae (plants).
  • Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (vascular plants).
  • Superdivisio: Spermatophyta (plants that produce seeds).
  • Division: Magnoliophyta (plants with flowers).
  • Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two plants / dicots).
  • Sub-class: Rosidae.
  • Order: Fabales.
  • Familia: Fabaceae (legumes tribe).
  • Genus: Canavalia.
  • Species:  Canavalia ensiformis

Friday, 18 October 2013

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum syn)

Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum syn) is a plant belonging to the family Solanaceae, native plants of Central and South America, from Mexico to Peru. Tomato is a plant with a short life cycle, can grow as high as 1 to 3 meters. Tomato is a close relative of the potato. Tomato is a fruit that is more often used as a fruit vegetable that is very famous and be a part of the dining table anywhere in the world. Originate from subtropical climates in South America, but now has spread throughout the world.

According to the article, by Andrew F. Smith's "The Tomato in America,” the tomato probably originated from the highlands of the west coast of South America. After Spanish colonized South America, they spread the tomato plants into their colonies in the Caribbean. Spanish also brought the tomato to the Philippines then, is the starting point for the spread to other areas in the entire continent of Asia. Spanish also brought the tomato to Europe. This plant grows easily in temperate regions of the Mediterranean.

Characteristic of the tree:

• Roots

Has two types of tomato roots as well, namely a). taproot: grow through both land and b) hairy roots: growing spread sideways, but shallow on the surface of the ground.

• Trunk

Tomato plant stems or rectangular to round, soft but strong enough trunked, hairy or smooth-haired and between the feathers are hair glands. Green colored plant stems. In the thickened stem segments and the bottom segment grows short roots, in addition to branching stems of tomato plants and branches of larger diameter when compared with other vegetable crops.

• Leaves

Tomato plant leaves are oval, serrated leaf edges and cracks forming pinnate and slightly curved inward. Green colored leaves and an odd compound leaves of about 3-6 cm. Among the large leaves usually grow 1-2 leaves are small. Compound leaves on tomato plants grown arranged alternately or spiral around the stem of the plant.

• Flowers

Tomato flowers are small, about 2 cm in diameter and colored bright yellow, numbered 5 petals and green fruit found in the most beautiful part of the flower color is bright yellow tomatoes amounted to 6 pieces. Tomato flowers are perfect flowers for pollen or pollen and anthers or stamens head formed at the same rate.

• Fruits

Tomato fruit shape varies, depending on varieties there is a round, slightly rounded, somewhat oval and ovate (oval). Fruit size also varies, the smallest weighs 8 grams and has a great weight of 180 grams. Young fruit colored light green, to red when ripe. His skin is always smooth, slick and shiny.

Tomato fruit has several varieties, among others, namely;

a. Regular tomato (L. commune)

Flat round fruit shape and grooved-groove near the stems and soft, tomatoes are widely grown by farmers and easily available in the market.

b. Apple tomato (L. pyriform)

Round fruit shape, sturdy and tough little bit like apples. Tomato is a crossbreed apples of various kinds of tomato fruit are large and heavy.

c. Potato tomato (L. grandiforlum)

Slightly oval fruit shape and hard, its leaf curling, lush and dark green colored. Tomato varieties of them Geraldton smooth skin and Indian river, is widely grown varieties of ground plateau-fruiting tomato varieties are among "Money Maker", which is a bit wild resistant to wilt disease and rainwater.

Nutrition :

Tomatoes are now eaten freely throughout the world . They contain the carotene lycopene , one of the most powerful natural antioxidants . In some studies , lycopene , especially in cooked tomatoes , has been found to help prevent prostate cancer , but other studies contradict this statement Lycopene has also been shown to improve the skin's ability to protect the skin from harmful UV rays A study conducted by researchers at Manchester and Newcastle universities revealed that tomatoes can protect against the sun's rays and help keep skin looking young . Natural genetic variation in tomatoes and their wild relatives has given a genetic genes that produce lycopene , carotene , anthocyanin , and other antioxidants . Tomato varieties are available with double the normal vitamin C ( Doublerich ) , 40 times normal vitamin A ( 97L97 ) , high levels of anthocyanin (resulting in blue tomatoes ) , and two to four times the normal amount of lycopene ( many cultivars are available with high red gene ) .

Scientific classification:

  • Kingdom        : Plantae (Plants)
  • Subkingdom   : Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  • Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  • Division          : Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  • Class              : Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  • Sub Class       : Asteridae
  • Order             : Solanales
  • Family             : Solanaceae (tribe eggplants)
  • Genus             : Solanum
  • Species           : Solanum lycopersicum

Wednesday, 16 October 2013

Rice (Oryza sativa and Oriza glaberrima)

Rice is the most widely consumed staple food of the world’s, especially in Asia. Rice is the seed of the Rice Plant a monocot plant that have two main species Oryza sativa (Asian rice) and Oriza glaberrima (African rice). This plant is origin to China (Pearl River valley) and spread to Southeast and South Asia since 1500 BC. Rice introduced to Europe through Western Asia. European colonization then bring it to Americas.

Rice cultivation is also one of the most important human civilizations, now rice cultivation become the second largest food plant cultivation after maize (corn), and rice is the most important carbohydrate source of worldwide humans. 

The importance of rice for mankind was illustrated from so much research projects and development of the quality and quantity of rice production, continues holds either by the various state agencies, universities and world research institutes such as the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI). IRRI is an international independent research and training organization with headquarters in Los Banos, Laguna in the Philippines. This organization has offices in sixteen countries.

Characteristic of the tree:

Rice or Paddy included in the tribe or Poaceae grains. Terna season, fibrous roots, stems very short. Similar structures formed from a series of rods that support each leaf midrib between the leaf midrib perfect and upright. Lancet-shaped leaves, light green to dark green, parallel veined leaves, covered with short hairs and sparse, composed of compound interest section, type branched panicles, flowers called florets units located on a single spikelet sitting on paniculate.

Seed and Reproduction:

Type of grain or fruit that cannot be distinguished caryopsis where fruits and seeds, nearly spherical to oval shapes, sizes 3mm to 15mm, covered by paleas and lemma which in everyday language is called chaff, the dominant structure of ordinary rice is kind endosperm.

Each rice flower has six anthers (anthers) and the stigma (stigma) forked shaped bottlebrush. Both of these sexual organs are generally sexually mature at the same time. Anthers sometimes out of the paleas and lemma if it has been ripe. In terms of reproduction, rice is self-pollinating plant, because 95% or more pollen to fertilize the same egg plant. Once fertilization occurs, the zygote and the fertilized polar nuclei divide immediately.

Form a zygote develops into an embryo and endosperm polar nuclei. At the end of development, most of the rice grains starchy endosperm section. For young plants, starch is used as a source of nutrition.

Genetics and breeding:

A set of rice genome consists of 12 chromosomes. Because rice is a diploid plant, each cell has 12 pairs of chromosomes of rice (except sex cells). Rice is a model organism in plant genetics study, was based for two reasons: its importance to humankind, and the relatively small size of the chromosomes, which is 1.6 ~ 2.3 × 108 base pairs (base pairs, bp). As a model plant, rice genome has been sequenced, as well as the human genome. Genetic improvement of rice has been going on since humans cultivate rice. The result of this action is the knowledge of a variety of local races, such as 'Rajalele' from Klaten or 'Pandanwangi' of Cianjur in Indonesia or 'Basmati Rice' from northern India.

New rice breeding systematically carried out since the establishment of IRRI in the Philippines as part of a world movement of agricultural modernization, dubbed as the Green Revolution. Since then comes the variety of rice cultivars with high yield to feed the world. The first two modern rice cultivars is 'IR5' and 'IR8'. Thousands of crosses then designed to produce cultivars with high yield potential and resistance to various pests and diseases of rice.

Since the 1970s have sought the development of hybrid rice, which has a higher yield potential. Due to the high cost of manufacture, this type cultivars are sold at higher prices than rice cultivars that are assembled with other methods.

In addition to improved yield potential, rice-breeding objectives also include the plants that are more resistant to a variety of plant pests and pressure (stress) a biotic (such as drought, salinity, and acid soils). Breeding aimed at improving the quality of rice was also performed, for examples by designing cultivars that contain carotene (pro vitamin A).

The presence of biotechnology and genetic engineering in the 1980s allows improvement of rice quality. A number of research teams in Switzerland developed transgenic rice that can produce toxins for pest-eating grain in the hope of lowering the use of pesticides.

IRRI, in collaboration with several other institutions, assemble "golden rice" (Golden Rice) which can result in provitamin A in rice, which is directed to the alleviation of vitamin A deficiency in developing countries. A team of Japanese researchers are also developing rice that produces cholera toxin to bacteria. Paddy rice produced expected this to be an alternative immunization cholera, especially in developing countries.

Genetic diversity :

Until now there are two species of mankind cultivated rice in bulk : Oryza sativa originating from Asia and O. glaberrima originating from West Africa .

In the early O. sativa is considered consists of two subspecies , indica and japonica ( synonym sinica ) . Japonica rice are generally long-lived , high but easy posture fall , lemmanya has a " tail " or " feather " ( awn ) , seeds tend to be rounded , and sticky rice . Indica rice , by contrast , shorter-lived , smaller stature , the lemma is not her " fur " or just short , and grains tend to be oval to oblong . Although both members of this subspecies can fertilize each other , is not a high percentage of success . Famous example of this is the result of crossing cultivars ' IR8 ' , which were selected from crosses japonica ( cultivar ' Deegeowoogen ' of Formosa ) and indica ( cultivar ' Map ' of Indonesia) . In addition to these two varieties , known javanica minor varieties which have the properties of the two main types above . Javanica varieties are only found on the island of Java.

Study with the help of molecular biological techniques have now shown that in addition to the two subspecies of O. sativa, indica and japonica, but there is also a minor subspecies be adaptive based on location. The subspecies mentioned are such as Upland rice from Bangladesh, royada (tidal swamp rice from Bangladesh), Ashina (tidal rice from India), and aromatic (fragrant rice from South Asia and Iran, including the famous basmati rice). This grouping is done using RFLP marker assisted with isozyme.

Genetic studies using SSR markers to the cell nucleus and two genomic loci on the chloroplast genome suggests that indica and japonica differentiation is steady, but it turns out japonica typically divided into three groups: temperate japonica ("japonica cool region" of China, Korea, and Japan), tropical japonica ("japonica tropical regions" of the archipelago), and aromatic. Subspecies aus a separate group.

Based on the evidence of the molecular evolution estimated indica and japonica groups separately since 440,000 years ago from an ancestral species populations of O. rufipogon. Rice domestication occurred in different places point to separate the two groups who had this. Based on archaeological evidence of rice began to be cultivated (domesticated) 10,000 to 5,000 years BC.

Continuous struggle of humankind to find the best rice varieties will never stop, along with increased consumption of these carbohydrates in the world that is inversely proportional to the area of agricultural land continues to decline.

There are about 723 metric tons worldwide rice production in the recent years with China, India, Indonesia, Bangladesh, and Vietnam in the five biggest rice producers of the world.

Scientific classification:

  • Kingdom         : Plantae (Plants)
  • Subkingdom    : Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  • Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  • Division          : Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  • Class               : Liliopsida (dashed one / monocot)
  • Sub Class       : Commelinidae
  • Order              : Poales
  • Family            : Poaceae (grasses tribe)
  • Genus             : Oryza
  • Species            : Oryza sativa,Oriza glaberrima

Citrus aurantifolia ( Lemon or Key lime )

Lemon or Key Lime or Citrus aurantifolia, is a herbaceous plant which has many branches and twigs, approximately 0.5 to 3.5 m high. Included in the group of citrus plants, this plant originated from South East Asia, spread to the Middle East, North Africa, then to Spain and Andalusia. Before reaching the sub tropical areas in American countries such as Mexico, Florida and California.

Characteristic of the tree:

Woody trunk tenacious, thorny, and hard. Medium colored outer skin surface of dark gray and dull greenish. The leaves are compound, with elliptical base rounded, blunt tip, and the jagged edge. The leaves can reach 2.5 to 9 cm long and 2-5 cm wide. While bone pinnate leaves with winged stalks, green and 5-25 mm wide. 

Lime plant has a taproot. In common with types of citrus, the lemon tree also likes places that can get direct sunlight.

Type of flowers, can be a compound or single flowers that grow in axillary or at the end of the stem, flower diameter between 1,5 - 2,5 cm. Petals shaped like a bowl to share 4-5 with a diameter of 0.4 to 0.7 cm, and a beige colored pistils cylindrical stalk. Corolla numbered 4-5, oval or oblong with a long 0.7 to 1.25 cm wide and 0.25 to 0.5 cm white. Lime plant usually begins to bear fruit at the age of 2 1/2 years.

The Fruit: 

This kind of orange tasted very sour, almost no sweetness at all. Largest form of lime reached a maximum of only as big as a ping-pong ball, green when young, and turns yellow when ripe. When opened it will be very pronounced sour flavor. In terms of food or drink, the fruit is usually used water, almost no one eating it directly. However, orange juice can be part of a very refreshing drink. For tropical countries, fruit and its leaves are also used as a spice in cooking them.

Lime juice is the best material to eliminate the fishy odor coming from the egg. In addition, lemon juice is also beneficial because it contains a substance - the following substances:

Lime fruit contains elements of chemical compounds that are useful , for example : citric acid , amino acids ( tryptophan , lysine ) , essential oils ( citral , limonene , felandren , lemon camphor , kadinen , Gerani - lasetat , linali - lasetat , aktilaldehid , nonildehid ) , resin , glycosides , citric acid, fat , calcium , phosphorus , iron , sulfur, vitamin B1 and C. In addition , lemon also contains saponins and flavonoids compounds hesperidin ( hesperetin 7 - rutinosida ) , tangeretin , naringin , eriocitrin , eriocitrocide . Hesperidin useful for anti-inflammatory , antioxidant , and inhibits prostaglandin synthesis .

Hesperidin also inhibited azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis in the rabbit, and also inhibits N-butyl-N-(4-hydroxy-butyl) nitrosamine-induced urinary bladder carcinogenesis in rats (Chang, 2001). Lemon juice also contains 7% essential oil containing citral, limonene, fenchon, terpineol, bisabolene, and other terpenoids. Guo, et al. (2006) have observed that D-Limonene can inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis in HL-60 cells and K562 cells.


Terms growth, ideally require 6-9 wet months (rainy season), rainfall 1000-2000 mm / yr evenly throughout the year, have enough water, especially in the month of July-August. Optimal temperature between 25-30 ° C and optimum humidity around 70-80%. Wind speed of more than 40-48% would destroy flowers and fruit. Optimum elevation between 1-1200 m asl. Orange juice is not like a place protected from sunlight. Latosol Andosol soil types and is perfect, the degree of acidity of the soil (soil pH) is 5.5-6.5. Optimum soil water at a depth of 150-200 cm below the soil surface. In the dry season, 150 cm and 50 cm in the rainy season. Lime plants like salt water containing approximately 10%.

Seeding: Seeding can be done by generative and vegetative:

A. Generative Method:

Seeds extracted from fruits by squeezing the fruit that has been cut. Dried beans in a place that is not exposed for 2-3 days until the mucus is lost. Then deployed in the nursery yag already prepared. However, breeding in this way will require a very long time to bear fruit, it needs about 5-6 years before the tree can bear fruit.

B. Vegetative Methods:

There are two methods applying on vegetative: transplanting or grafting. Grafting is a method of seed multiplication by shoot tip grafting and attachment of the eye patch. For both these ways need to be prepared root stock  were selected from the type of lime with strong roots and a broad, high environmental adaptability, drought resistant, resistant / tolerant to viral diseases, root rot and nematodes. Rootstock varieties commonly used is Japanese citroen, Rough lemon, Cleopatra, Troyer citrange Citrange and Carizzo. After the shoot tip grafting or attachment of the eye patch.

Time to start fruiting will be shorter than generative method, seed that made by grafting or transplanting will began to bear fruit on about 2 ½ year since planting time.

Planting: Lime seedlings can be planted in the rainy season or dry season when the water available for watering, but better to be planted early in the rainy season. Before planting, necessary to: (a) Reduction of excessive leaves and branches; (b) Reduction of the root; (c) Setting the root position lest there folded.

Scientific classification:
    • Kingdom                : Plantae (Plants)
    • Subkingdom           : Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
    • Super Division       : Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
    • Division                 : Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
    • Class                      : Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
    • Sub Class              : Rosidae
    • Order                    : Sapindales
    • Family                  : Rutaceae (citrus tribe)
    • Genus                   : Citrus
    • Species                  : Citrus aurantifolia

Tuesday, 15 October 2013

Cynometra cauliflora (Nam-nam)

Cynometra cauliflora (Caesalpiniaeeae), also known as Nam-nam came from eastern Malesia region and grows wild in the forests of Sulawesi Island. Nam-nam is naturally grown in lowland wet. However, this plant prefers habitats that distinction clear season (monsoon), although nam-nam liked the place open full sun intensity, but also somewhat tolerant to shade. This fruit crops, although quite tasty, now endangered. Because nam-nam is not a type of crops that cultivated intensively, this plant is more to a garden crops, forests or crops that made bonsai then put in a pot and become ornamental plants.

Characteristic of the tree:

Shrubs or small trees, reaching 3-15 m tall only. Gnarled trunk, the bark is smooth nodule, brown or gray. Titled rather tight, with a winding twigs zigzag. The wood is dense and pale, but not much use. The tree generally multiplied by seed, although it can be propagated by budding, approach grafting and other methods.

Compound leaves with a pair of leaves, stalks 2-8 mm. Leaflets oval to round eggs tilted asymmetrical, 5.5 to 16.5 x 1.5 to 5.5 cm, almost stem less, such as hides, hanging, lustrous dark green. Young leaves are white or light pink, hanging limp like a handkerchief.

Bouquet of flowers form as small bunches protected by leaves lines that function as flowers guard, can be up 4-5 in the crowded cluster bumps that appear on the trunk, until close to the ground. Small flowers; petals pale pink or white, in a four shares, petals 2-4 mm long crown; crowns lanceolate, white, 5 strands, 3-4 mm long. Stamens unravel, 8-10 strands; pistil stalk about 5-6 mm.

Flowering and fruiting takes place throughout the year, but the main flowering period in Indonesia took place between the months of Agustlls until November. Flowers to bloom development progresses rapidly ie 2-3 days after bud emergence. In each flower stalk, flower buds will appear continuously after the flower buds before blooming perfect then fall.

The Fruits:

Nam-nam is the name of a type of fruit from the tribe of legumes (Leguminosae alias Fabaceae). With a single seed in each fruit. Thick fleshy pods, kidney-shaped, tapered tipped wrinkles, 3-9 x 2-6 x 1-4 cm, suspended in the stem, brown scaly when young, and greenish or yellowish when ripe. Tastes sour when young but turn out to be sour and sweet when ripe older. When the fruit ripe can be consumed directly in fresh.

Scientific classification:
    • Kingdom         : Plantae (Plants)
    • Subkingdom    : Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
    • Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
    • Division          : Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
    • Class               : Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
    • Sub Class       : Rosidae
    • Order             : Fabales
    • Family            : Fabaceae (legumes tribe)
    • Genus             : Cynometra
    • Species            : L. cauliflora Cynometra

Sunday, 13 October 2013

Oriental persimmon (Diospyros kaki).

Physically this fruit is look like apple, unlike apple the outer skin of this fruit covered by a kind of flour like face powder. So, in some Southeast Asian countries this fruit sometimes named as the flirty fruit (because using face powder).

This fruit is native to China and others Far East Asia Countries like Japan. However, now spread already around South East Asia Countries. In South East Asia persimmon cultivation is still very rare, so what is available in the market is highly dependent on the outcome of the plants that grow from the fields of the population that generally grow wild. However, because this fruit is a seasonal fruit, we can see abundant amounts in the markets in countries such as Indonesia, Malaysia and other Southeast Asian countries.

The Japanese cultivar 'Hachiya' is widely grown. "Sharon fruit" (named originally after the Sharon plain in Israel) is an Israeli-bred cultivar of the D. kaki fruit. The cultivar is called 'Triumph'. As with all pollination-variant-astringent persimmons, the fruit are ripened off the tree by exposing them to carbon dioxide. The sharon fruit has no core, is seedless, particularly sweet, and can be eaten whole.

The American Persimmon (Diospyros virginiana) is native to the eastern United States, its fruit is traditionally eaten in a special steamed pudding in the Midwest and sometimes its timber is used as a substitute for ebony (e.g. in instruments).

Characteristic of the tree:

Persimmon tree is small to medium, 15 m or less, dioecious but sometimes monoecious, trunked short and crooked, many branches, leaves and abort. Persimmon plant is an annual plant. Can grow well in the yard, the yard, the edge of the moor, the edge of the road, on the river bank, or both cultivated in monoculture and intercropping with other crops, generally persimmon trees tolerant of varieties of soil types. The recommended soil acidity is pH between 5.5 - 6.5.

Plants grown from seed, this tree has a taproot, whereas a plant from vegetative propagation does not have a taproot. Persimmon plant roots are not far from the ground, which is about 20 cm or more. Most of them have a setting away from the soil surface is easy to grow buds.

Persimmon root is brownish; it is also a part of instrumental in the propagation. Naturally, during the rainy season many roots buds grows, and in addition it is also a lot of growing new plants from the base of the persimmon plant roots, especially those that have mature. Such behavior provides opportunities for plant propagation of persimmon with root cuttings techniques, this technique also applied for propagation of breadfruit plants whose fruits have no seeds. 

Stem color is green when young but change to brownish dull after dark. Young stems, primarily the ones who come from the shoots can be used as plant propagation material by stem cuttings. Bark surface feels smooth when young and old feels a bit rough after.

Persimmon plant leaves have a sharp tip and base, simple, oval, up to 15 cm long and 10 cm wide, with a length of about 2 cm stalk. Persimmon leaf have boned formed like a fish spines.

Plain edge leaf shape, leaf surface is rather rough. Young leaves seem a little weak, old leaves stiff. While still in its infancy, leaves will light green or yellowish. Young leaves that decorate the plant make an impression as a new crop plants that are starting to grow. At the time, the leaves are grown plants look green or dark green, shiny, and plants look more solid. 

In the tropics, plant persimmon leaf color changes are not very noticeable, ie when young pale green or yellowish, after mature dark green, and then yellow as the plant leaves will fall, the leaves turn yellow persimmon evolve as shaded, then became orange and red.

In the subtropics, usually persimmon flowers have appeared in March, while in tropical regions such as Indonesia's new persimmon flowers appear in September and October. Sometimes, there are aftershocks flowers in early April. If it happened, so this is a superior trait or adaptation to the environment, then it deserves to be observed and used as a source of plant propagation that capable to fruit twice a year, especially in the areas concerned.

Persimmon flowers emerge from the armpit leaves that have been and are being grown from the twig. The persimmon flower formation takes place concurrently with the formation of new leaves. Flower formation mechanism is influenced by plant physiology.

At the time the leaves still look green or yellowish, in fact there has been emerging flower prospective, single, or sequential, in the armpit leaves on the twigs of plants. Thus on one branch there is only one possible flowers candidate, while at the other branches are many potential interest. On one branch there will probably rise one flower, two flowers and even was able to raise more than three flowers.

Persimmon flowers there are three kinds, namely the male flowers, female flowers and perfect flowers. Male flowers and female flowers usually emerge from different plants. Male flowering plant male and female flowering female plants. Sometimes, the male plants produce perfect flowers and female flowers. Male flowers are in groups of three flowers, in axillary panicles. Male flowers have 4 petals and 24 stamens that are on two rows.

Female flowers, single, have four separate leaves petals, petals colored grayish white or pale yellow, 8 stamens that are not fully developed, and will be a round fruit, stalk-related stigma and anthers. Usually on the branches are 1-5 female flowers, or even more. 

Perfect flower is a combination of both, which have pollen and pistil, so as to generate a typical fruit. The fruit is usually relatively large size, have a seed, has a stronger taste.

The Fruits and it’s Seed:

Many that are parthenocarpic persimmon, seedless fruit that is formed because no preparation, however, in fact, the persimmon crop cultivation is necessary to pollen for getting optimal production. On flower pollination occurs, will produce fruit that contains the seeds and will have a larger size and has a different flavor and texture. Therefore, many varieties are parthenocarpic persimmon; most do not have a persimmon seed.

Persimmon fruit, the base is covered by a sheath attached. Shape of each persimmon cultivars varied, from the shape of the ball, oval, up to the base of a rather flat, and rectangular. Persimmon peels thin, soft, shiny, yellow, orange, red, brownish red. Fruit flesh is yellow orange, dark brown, watery and soft. Before ripe persimmon taste bitter (astringent), but when fully ripe fruit, flesh became soft, and sweet, for those who do not astringent fruit, can be eaten straight, although not yet fully ripe.

Compared to apples, persimmons have higher levels of dietary fiber, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron and manganese, but lower levels of copper and zinc. They also contain vitamin C and provitamin A beta-carotene (Nutrient table, right).

Persimmon fruits contain phytochemicals, such as catechin and gallocatechin, as well as compounds under preliminary research for potential anti-cancer activity, such as betulinic acid. Persimmon fruit can be consumed directly when it is really ripe, or made other preparations such as candied fruit and dried.

Scientific Classification:
  • Kingdom: Plantae
  • Division: Spermatophyta
  • Subdivisio: Angiospermae
  • Class: Magnoliopsida
  • Subclasses: Dilleniidae
  • Order: Ebenales
  • Family: Ebenaceae
  • Genus: Diospyros
  • Species: Diospyros feet L.f.

Wednesday, 9 October 2013

Arenga pinnata (Sugar Palm or Aren)

Arenga pinnata (Sugar Palm, Arenga Palm, Areng palm, Black-fiber palm, Gomuti Palm, Aren, Enau, Irok, and Kaong), is the most important palm after Coconut, especially when measured in economic scale. This plant is another tropical palm that native to tropical Asia, as a part or wild tropical rain forest plants from eastern of India to Indonesia and the Philippines.

Dutch identified this plant as arenpalm or zuikerpalm and the German named the same as zuckerpalme.

Sugar palm provides various economical value, Aren Palm Sugar that almost similar to Palm Sugar that produced by coconut palm is one of this plant gain, Aren Palm Sugar is little bit better that common palm sugar. This palm sugar is derived from sweet liquid produced from this tree that called sap (nira), clear colored somewhat murky. Nira is not durable, and taken through the tapping of young fruit stems before flowers bloom, the tapping done after the end of the stem pieces cut in a certain way. Tapping is usually done in the morning and afternoon, then immediately processed into sugar or palm wine. Palm sugar is obtained by heating the nira continuously so that the liquid thickens and turns brown colored.

Through fermentation, nira can produce to a kind of fermented alcoholic beverages, particularly in Indonesia and named as palm wine (tuak). This drink is a favorite alcoholic beverage in certain areas.

Fruit sugar has a two or three seed core grains (endosperm) of white coated thin hard shell. Young fruit essence is still soft and somewhat translucent. Young fruit baked or boiled to remove the core, and then the seed cores soaked in limewater a few days to relieve the itching and poisonous sap. Alternatively, young fruit and steamed for three hours after the peel, core, and seed struck sprawl then soaked in water for 10-20 days. Core seeds that have been roasted traded in the market as Kolang-kaling. Moreover, fro like a mixture of ice, candied or cooked as compote.

The leaves of this tree are also useful as a roof, and are commonly used in the construction of traditional houses especially in Indonesia.

Like the leaves, the fibers of palm trees were twisted into rope. Although a bit stiff, rope fibers is quite strong, durable, and used in seawater. Fibers can also be used as a roofing material home, brush makers, and broom fibers. 

Characteristics of the tree:

Palm tree easy to grow, palm grows wild or planted, to a height of 1,400 m above sea level. Usually grow on the slopes or riverbanks.

Although the sap is very itchy, palm fruit that ripen much like animals. Luwak civet is known as one of the animals that like to eat palm fruit, and indirectly serves as animal seed dispersers’ palm. In Bangka Island, in the past, Chinese people put a trap under a palm tree that was fruiting, group to catch wild pigs that feast on the fallen palm fruits. 

Palm tree actually is a palm that has a big log and tall, can reach 25 m. Up to 65 cm in diameter, and the trunk firmly at the top covered by black fibers known as fibers. Fibers are actually part of the midrib of the leaf that surrounds the stem.

The leaves are pinnate compound, such as palm leaves, up to 5 m long with petiole up to 1.5 m. Children undulating ribbon-like leaves, up to 7 x 145 cm, dark green above and whitish because the wax layer on the bottom side.

Monoecious, separate male flowers from the female flowers in different cobs that appear in axillary panicles; ear length up to 2.5 m. Buni fruit rounded bullet shape, with a diameter of about 4 cm, three bears and three seeds, arranged in chain-like strands. Each bunch has 10 stems or more, and each stalk has about 50 grains of green fruit until brown. The fruit can not be eaten directly because the sap is very itchy.

Scientific classification:
  • Kingdom: Plantae
  • Phylum: Magnoliophyta
  • Class: Magnoliopsida
  • Order: Sapindales
  • Family: Anacardiaceae
  • Genus: Mangifera
  • Species: M.indica