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Wednesday, 14 August 2013

Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus)

Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) is a type of vine pods, in Indonesia and Southeast Asian countries the young fruit used as a green vegetable. This plant is a tropical legume, native to Papua New Guinea. It grows abundantly in hot, humid equatorial countries, from the Philippines and Indonesia to India, Burma, Thailand, and Sri Lanka. It does well in humid tropics with high rainfall. There are also varieties that can be grown in most areas of the U.S.

Winged bean plants classified as ground cover and effective green manure, because this plant includes a best nitrogen-fixing plants from the air. In winged bean cultivation, fertilizer N is not required at all. 

Characteristic of the tree:
Vines, shrubs forming,  in cultivation usually given buffer, but if left without support will cover the soil surface. The trunk is cylindrical, jointed, rarely woody. In the tropical regions this plant can grow well from lowlands to highlands (up to a height of 1600 m above sea level). Winged bean plants can live in the land with low organic matter, loam, sandy, and the soil is dry.

A compound leaf with three leaflets triangular, 7.0 to 8.5 cm long, pinnate leaves bones, lying or intermittent. Petiole is round, grooved, notched and  elongated at the top, thickened at the base and tip, green with yellow spots. 

The flowers are single flower, butterfly-shaped, growing in axillary, sessile, the bottom petals united, four titled at the top , curved pistil stalk, the stigma has white hair, the base of the stamens are united, and the anthers  are yellow to yellow to blue-tinged, can be used as a raw of food color.

Plant physiology, winged bean is very sensitive to frost. In addition, he was a short day plant, flowering only if the length of the day is less than a critical mass (about 12 hours).

The Fruit:
Winged bean fruit is usually used when young as a green vegetable.  Winged bean fruit in the form of pods, elongated rectangular-shaped, serrated edge, having length 15-30 cm and green.  Seeds 8-10 mm diameter round and brown, while its roots in the form of brownish white taproot. 

Winged bean seeds with soybeans or other legumes that can be processed into tempeh (a fermented soybean raw food origin of Indonesia). Winged bean combined with rice can be processed into high-protein soybean tempeh.

Nutrition fact:
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy1,711 kJ (409 kcal)
Carbohydrates41.7 g
- Dietary fiber25.9 g
Fat16.3 g
- saturated2.3 g
- monounsaturated6 g
- polyunsaturated4.3 g
Protein29.65 g
Thiamine (vit. B1)1.03 mg (90%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)0.45 mg (38%)
Niacin (vit. B3)3.09 mg (21%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.795 mg (16%)
Vitamin B60.175 mg (13%)
Folate (vit. B9)45 μg (11%)
Calcium440 mg (44%)
Iron13.44 mg (103%)
Magnesium179 mg (50%)
Manganese3.721 mg (177%)
Phosphorus451 mg (64%)
Potassium977 mg (21%)
Sodium38 mg (3%)
Zinc4.48 mg (47%)
Source: USDA database

Scientific classification:
  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Rosidae
  •                           Order: Fabales
  •                               Family: Fabaceae (legumes tribe)
  •                                   Genus: Psophocarpus
  •                                       Species: Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Dc