Follow my blog with Bloglovin Worldwide Fruits List: Coriander (Coriandrum sativum)

Saturday, 24 August 2013

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum)

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) is a spice plants, popular all over the world. When you go to the supermarket, you may found coriander powder inside a bottle that powder comes from a small fruit that is dried and then crushed. Coriander form and shape is very similar to pepper, small seeds 1-2 mm in diameter.

Coriander is known to have functions as food and herbal medicine. As a seasoning spice, coriander fruit is widely used in Asia, Middle East, Africa, Latin America, and Europe. In the world of herbal medicine coriander, known as Fructus coriandri.

There are some versions regarding to the native of this plant, but majority of them noted that Coriander trees comes from South Europe and Caspian Sea.

Characteristic of the tree:
Coriander can be grown in lowland and upland to a height of 2,000 meters above sea level. The plants were harvested after only three months old, then dried, and the fruit is brownish separated from the plant. 

Coriander plant is included as seasonal shrubs, with a height of about one meter. The roots type is taproot, branching, and white. Woody stem is soft, grooved, and perforated with branching dichotom green. Stems measuring about 5-10 cm, the leaves are compound, pinnate, with whitish green leaf edge. 

Coriander flowers have small white to pale pink, the petals width between 5-6 mm, flowering did not occur simultaneously (indeterminate).

Besides its fruit that consumed as seasoning, coriander leaves are also used as a green vegetable.

The fruit:
Size of coriander fruit is similar to pepper fruit, the outer skin color is green when young and changing to be light brown when ripe. Coriander fruits (seeds) have a diameter of 3-5 mm. Coriander plants begin flowering around the age of a tree about 2 months and the fruit can be harvested three months after the flowers appear, or about 135 to 150 days after planting. When ripe, coriander seeds taste is spicy, and has a distinctive aroma to dishes.

Coriander contains a number of acidic compounds, linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, and ascorbic acid. The compounds were known to be effective in lowering cholesterol levels in the blood and may be able to reduce cholesterol deposits in the arteries and veins.

Cineole, one of the 11 components of the essential oil and linoleic acid contained in the coriander, has antirheumatic properties and anti-artriti. Thus, coriander can be used to cope with swelling caused by rheumatism and arthritis.

See nutrient composition details below:

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy95 kJ (23 kcal)
Carbohydrates3.67 g
- Sugars0.87
- Dietary fiber2.8 g
Fat0.52 g
Protein2.13 g
Water92.21 g
Vitamin A equiv.337 μg 42%
- beta-carotene3930 μg 36%
- lutein and zeaxanthin865 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1)0.067 mg 6%
Riboflavin (vit. B2)0.162 mg 14%
Niacin (vit. B3)1.114 mg 7%
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.57 mg 11%
Vitamin B60.149 mg 11%
Folate (vit. B9)62 μg 16%
Vitamin C27 mg 33%
Vitamin E2.5 mg 17%
Vitamin K310 μg 295%
Calcium67 mg 7%
Iron1.77 mg 14%
Magnesium26 mg 7%
Manganese0.426 mg 20%
Phosphorus48 mg 7%
Potassium521 mg 11%
Sodium46 mg 3%
Zinc0.5 mg 5%
Source: USDA database

Scientific classification:
  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Rosidae
  •                           Order: Apiales
  •                               Family: Apiaceae
  •                                   Genus: Coriandrum
  •                                       Species: Coriandrum sativum