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Friday, 23 August 2013

Clove tree (Syzygium aromaticum)

Clove tree or Cengkeh - Indonesia (Syzygium aromaticum) is native to Indonesia, specifically from the Moluccas Island. In fact, the main part that utilized and has most economic value of clove tree is the flowers of cloves not its fruit, but people often mistakenly assume its flower as the fruit of clove. 

Since the colonial era in medieval clove has become important horticultural merchandise, clove is one of the most important spice ingredients for the European community. At the time of the Dutch occupation of Indonesia, cloves is one of their essential commodities, in addition to nutmeg, sugar etc.

In addition to Indonesia's clove is also cultivated in Madagascar, Zanzibar, India, and Sri Lanka, the mentioned countries are also the main producers of clove of the world.

More than only utilized in food and culinary, cloves is also an important part of cigarette called cigarette kretek in Indonesia, the clove oil also utilized as aroma therapy ingredient, and in some of Asia countries clove also used as herbal medicines. 

Characteristic of the tree:

Clove tree is a perennial plant that can grow up to 10-20 m, has an oval-shaped leaves that bloom in its shoots. Stalk of fruit at first green, and red if the flowers are blooming. Cloves ( its flower actually ) will be harvested if it reaches a length of 1.5-2 cm. Round logs, rough surface of the stem, usually have branches filled with lots of branches. Direction trunk grows upright (erectus), including monopodial branches, because they can be distinguished between the main stem and branches, branches tend to grow towards the top.

Additionally clove tree can survive up to tens of years. The bark can be colored dark gray, brown to black. Hard wood trunk, but rarely utilized in the manufacture of household utensils or other tools.

Clove tree root is a taproot, which consists of the principal roots then branch out, form its taproot spear-shaped (fusiform), the roots grow into small branches. Strong roots that can last up to tens or even hundreds of years. Its roots are usually able to go deep enough into the ground.

The clove tree leaf excluding incomplete because the leaves have a petiole (petiolus), leaf blade (lamina), but does not have the leaf midrib (vagina), oval-shaped leaves and flowering at the edges. Including compound leaves Leaf structure (circumscriptio) is lancet (lanceolatus), end (apex) is tapered (acustus), base (base folii) is tapered (acuminatus), bone structure leaves (nervatio) is pinnate (penninervis), leaf edges (border) is average (integer), and the meat leaves (intervenium) is like paper, thin but tough enough (papyraceus). This leaf is green., as in the mains stalk there is more than one leaf. Clove leaf size: The width ranges from 2-3 cm, and leaf length of approximately 7.5 -12.5 cm. 

The flower and its fruits:
Clove leaf appears on the top branches (flos terminalis) with short stalks and bunches (real-stemmed flowers sitting on the flower stalk utma). Clove tree flowers including finite compound flower, since the end of the main stems are always covered by flowers. Flower consist of stems (pedicellus), mains stalk (peduncle), and the base of the flower (repectaculum). Clove is a single flower (unisexualis) so they can be divided into male flowers (flos masculus) and females (flos femineus), the basic of flower (repectaculum) it the supporter of the stamens and pistils (andoginofor).

Clove is included in a single symmetric that can only be divided by a plane of symmetry into 2 parts. Flower color will vary according to the age of the tree. When young clove purplish color, and then turned into a greenish yellow and when old become light red. Cloves have stalks green fruit when young, then when the old red and bloom. The fruit including pseudo fruit, because there are parts of the flower take part in the formation of the fruit.

Clove very rarely allowed growing up to be a fruits, clove flowers will be harvested before the flowers bloom. Old flower is a major commodity that is taken from the clove tree. The clove tree starting to produce at about age of five.

Scientific classification:

  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Rosidae
  •                           Order: Myrtales
  •                               Family: Myrtaceae
  •                                   Genus: Syzygium
  •                                       Species: Syzygium aromaticum