Follow my blog with Bloglovin Worldwide Fruits List: Chilli (Capsicum)

Thursday, 22 August 2013

Chilli (Capsicum)

Chilli plant is basically divided into two main groups, namely large peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) and cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) major chili divided into two groups, namely spicy chili (hot pepper) and chili paprika (sweet pepper).

Pepper (hot pepper) comes from mainland South America and Central America. Pepper plants grown from approximately 7500 years before Christ. Communities who first utilize and develop the chili was the Incas in South America, the Maya in Central America, and the Aztecs in Mexico. They use it as a spice in cooking.

Christopher Columbus landed on the coast of San Salvador on 12 October 1492 found that many locals use the bright red fruit as a cooking spice spicy taste. Then Columbus brought peppers from the Americas to Spain to be presented to Queen Isabella as the findings in the American continent.

In the 1500s, the Portuguese began to trade chillies to Macao and Goa, then go to India, China, and Thailand. Around 1513 the Portuguese empire in the Turkish occupied areas of Hormuz, the Persian Gulf. When Turkey occupied Hungary, chilli was cultivated in Hungary.

Now, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used in both food and medicine and presently India is the world's largest producer, consumer and exporter of chili peppers.

Characteristics of the tree:
Pepper plants including crops (annual) shaped shrub, with woody stems grow upright and highly branched. Mature plant height between 65-170 cm and canopy width 50-100 cm. In the world of plants (Plantarum), pepper plants, belonging to the plants that produce seeds (Spermatophyte), chili beans covered by a skin of the classic pieces that covered seed plants (Angiosperm). Pepper plants including seeds sides (Dicotyledoneae). Complete flower decoration, which consists of petals and crown, with the crown of leaves that attaches to one, so put in a sub-class Sympetalae. Chili included in eggplants family (Solanaceae).

Pepper plants are rooting taproot, which consists of the main root (primary) and secondary roots (lateral). Lateral roots will release fibers roots (tertiary roots). Primary root length ranged from 35-50 cm, while the lateral root spread with length ranging from 35-45 cm.

The main stem of pepper plants upright and sturdy, height about 30-40 cm, and a trunk diameter of about 1.5 to 3.0 cm. Woody main stem and greenish brown. In the intensive cultivation of chili on the main stem wood formation is taking place at the age of 30-40 days after planting (DAP). At each armpit leaves will grow, new shoots starting at age 10-15 DAP.

Terms of growth, the length of the pepper plant caused by the continuous growth of buds, such growth is called simpodial growth. Primary branches will form secondary branching then secondary branches will form tertiary branches continuously. In the intensive cultivation of chili will be formed around 11-17 branching at the flowering period.

Leaves light green pepper until dark, supported by leaf petiole. Bone-shaped pinnate leaves. Overall, the shape of the pepper plant leaves are oval with pointed leaf tips.

Like most family Solanaceae, shaped of flowers of pepper plants is like a trumpet (hyporcrateriformis). Pepper plants classified in full flower (completus) because it consists of flower petals (calyx), petals (Corrola), stamens (stamens), and pistil (pistillium). Male genitalia (stamens) and female genitalia (pistil) on pepper plants located in the same flower, so called androgynous (Hermaphroditus). Chilli flowers grow in branching (axillary), consists of six strands of green colored petals and five strands of white petals. Pistil stalk is white with greenish-yellow anthers. In one flower, there is one pistil and six stamens. Stalk white sari with a blue-purple anthers, after pollination will occur. At the time of the formation of the fruit, flower crown fall off, but the petals remain attached to the fruit. Fruit shape varies, depending on the variety.

The fruit:
Shape, size, and color of chilies are very varied, because there are so many varieties and its variety bring itself form and character. However, the majority of chili color are between green, yellow, and yellow-green when young, and become red or dark orange when old and ripe. However, there is also purple color of chili.

Nevertheless, there are similarities among all peppers, the taste; all pieces of chili have a sense of spicy arising from the substance named capsaicin, which is stored in the white vein of pepper, a media inside the chili fruit were seeds are attached. The capsaicin is increased appetite. The grade of spicy depending on variety of the fruit, and also the grow location.

In the spicy chilies that it contained vitamin C and beta-carotene (pro-vitamin A), which was more than fruits such as mango, pineapple, and watermelon. Even levels of minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus, mineral content exceeds that of the fresh fish.

While the seeds contain solanine, solamidine, solamargine, solasodine, solasomine and steroid saponins (kapsisidin), kapsisidin efficacious as an anti-biotic.

Nutritions details of Chilli fruit:
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy166 kJ (40 kcal)
Carbohydrates8.8 g
- Sugars5.3 g
- Dietary fiber1.5 g
Fat0.4 g
Protein1.9 g
Water88 g
Vitamin A equiv.48 μg 6%
- beta-carotene534 μg 5%
Vitamin B60.51 mg39%
Vitamin C144 mg 173%
Iron1 mg8%
Magnesium23 mg 6%
Potassium322 mg 7%
Capsaicin0.01g – 6 g
Source: USDA database

Scientific classification:

  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Asteridae
  •                           Order: Solanales
  •                               Family: Solanaceae (tribe eggplants)
  •                                   Genus: Capsicum
  •                                       Species: Capsicum annuum L.