Follow my blog with Bloglovin Worldwide Fruits List: August 2013

Saturday, 24 August 2013

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum)

Coriander (Coriandrum sativum) is a spice plants, popular all over the world. When you go to the supermarket, you may found coriander powder inside a bottle that powder comes from a small fruit that is dried and then crushed. Coriander form and shape is very similar to pepper, small seeds 1-2 mm in diameter.

Coriander is known to have functions as food and herbal medicine. As a seasoning spice, coriander fruit is widely used in Asia, Middle East, Africa, Latin America, and Europe. In the world of herbal medicine coriander, known as Fructus coriandri.

There are some versions regarding to the native of this plant, but majority of them noted that Coriander trees comes from South Europe and Caspian Sea.

Characteristic of the tree:
Coriander can be grown in lowland and upland to a height of 2,000 meters above sea level. The plants were harvested after only three months old, then dried, and the fruit is brownish separated from the plant. 

Coriander plant is included as seasonal shrubs, with a height of about one meter. The roots type is taproot, branching, and white. Woody stem is soft, grooved, and perforated with branching dichotom green. Stems measuring about 5-10 cm, the leaves are compound, pinnate, with whitish green leaf edge. 

Coriander flowers have small white to pale pink, the petals width between 5-6 mm, flowering did not occur simultaneously (indeterminate).

Besides its fruit that consumed as seasoning, coriander leaves are also used as a green vegetable.

The fruit:
Size of coriander fruit is similar to pepper fruit, the outer skin color is green when young and changing to be light brown when ripe. Coriander fruits (seeds) have a diameter of 3-5 mm. Coriander plants begin flowering around the age of a tree about 2 months and the fruit can be harvested three months after the flowers appear, or about 135 to 150 days after planting. When ripe, coriander seeds taste is spicy, and has a distinctive aroma to dishes.

Coriander contains a number of acidic compounds, linoleic acid, oleic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, and ascorbic acid. The compounds were known to be effective in lowering cholesterol levels in the blood and may be able to reduce cholesterol deposits in the arteries and veins.

Cineole, one of the 11 components of the essential oil and linoleic acid contained in the coriander, has antirheumatic properties and anti-artriti. Thus, coriander can be used to cope with swelling caused by rheumatism and arthritis.

See nutrient composition details below:

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy95 kJ (23 kcal)
Carbohydrates3.67 g
- Sugars0.87
- Dietary fiber2.8 g
Fat0.52 g
Protein2.13 g
Water92.21 g
Vitamin A equiv.337 μg 42%
- beta-carotene3930 μg 36%
- lutein and zeaxanthin865 μg
Thiamine (vit. B1)0.067 mg 6%
Riboflavin (vit. B2)0.162 mg 14%
Niacin (vit. B3)1.114 mg 7%
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.57 mg 11%
Vitamin B60.149 mg 11%
Folate (vit. B9)62 μg 16%
Vitamin C27 mg 33%
Vitamin E2.5 mg 17%
Vitamin K310 μg 295%
Calcium67 mg 7%
Iron1.77 mg 14%
Magnesium26 mg 7%
Manganese0.426 mg 20%
Phosphorus48 mg 7%
Potassium521 mg 11%
Sodium46 mg 3%
Zinc0.5 mg 5%
Source: USDA database

Scientific classification:
  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Rosidae
  •                           Order: Apiales
  •                               Family: Apiaceae
  •                                   Genus: Coriandrum
  •                                       Species: Coriandrum sativum

Pepper (Piper nigrum)


Pepper (Piper nigrum) is a form of whole spices produced by the plant with the same name. Pepper is very important in components of world cuisine and is widely known as an important trade commodity in the "Old World.” In the past, the price is so high that it became one of the triggers of the Europeans to the exploration of East Asia for control of trade and, thus, began the history of the colonization of Africa, Asia, and America.

Piper nigrum is a type of vines, a part of the Piperaceae family. Pepper cultivation is intended to produce fruit, which is then dried and used as a spice. The fruit that knows, as black pepper or white pepper is a fresh fruit that measuring about 5 mm in diameter, dark red when fully ripe. Pepper powder is come from grinding dried pepper fruit.

Piper nigrum originated from India and widely cultivated there and in other tropical regions. Currently Vietnam is the largest producer and exporter in the world.

Characteristics of trees: 
Trees pepper, belonging to the Piper genus, which has about 600 to 2000 species. From the number of species, some of them has been cultivated such as Piper nigrum (pepper), Piper betle (betel), and Piper retrofractum (Java chili).

Pepper tree can reach up to 10m high; however, the vines will not be allowed to reach more than 5 m, when cultivated. Of course, this is a technical issue related to the care and harvesting.

Piper nigrum tree has two kind of roots:

a. Hanging Root ( Roots that above the ground/soil).

Hanging root is also called sticky or roots rock roots, the sticky roots use to cling or climb on its propagation media, so that the plant could metastasize to the top. Sticky roots only grow on the Orthotrop trunk, while on the fruit branches, the sticky roots will never grow.

b. The primary root.

This root is the root of the plant, as usual, there are roots in the soil, also called primary roots. Besides as an extension of the sticky root, these roots independtly also grows on the stem scars pieces. The roots will be able to penetrate the soil as deep as 12 m, root length can reach 2-4 m, but generally just reach between 30-60 cm depth only. This type of roots functionality is the same as in other plants, as the "legs" of plants, as a tool absorbing nutrients from the soil, etc.

Tolon is a main stem that growing climbing where other sticks such as plagiotrop and orthotrop branches will grow. The rod-shaped rather flat, dark gray, jointed, woody quickly, on this place the sticky roots grow. 

While in the bud, the rod bends. Each segment length can reach 7-12 cm at the end of segment will grow a leaf and a buds, their position is facing each other. 

When the pepper plant young ( 8 -12 months) will reach a height of 1.5 m with 1 segment whose numbers ± 20 pieces. After that, then branches grow consisting of primary branches, secondary, tertiary.

Orthotrop branches: These branches grow on the main stem. The branches are round, budded apart, and grow up. The branches have the same position with the primary trunk. Because they are, also have sticky roots, climbing, as well as having segments.

Plagiotrop branch (branch fruit): branches that grow from trunk orthotrop, which are numerous, these branches are short, rather small, and does not have sticky roots. At this branch, the flowers which later became the pepper fruit will grow.

The pepper plants unpaired single leafy, springy nature, and stemmed. Ovoid shape, but the bud tapered.

Upper parts of the leaves shiny dark green, while the under parts pale green and not shiny, stem length 2-4 cm, leaf length 12-18 cm, and 5-10 cm wide. The leaves on the upper trunk, not the same as the leaves on the bottom, at the top is longer, while the bottom is more rounded. Similarly, the forms of the leaves from the stems or branches are also not same as leaves on the vines and branches plagiotrop. The shapes of branch leaves are symmetrical and dark-colored, while the leaves of the plagiotrop branches or tendrils are asymmetrical and light-colored.

The leaves grow opposite each other with branches bud growth, while the growth of leaves on branches plagiotrop face to face with flower panicle growth. The leaf buds covered by petals. If the leaf expands, then fell off the petals or scales.

The parts that can bloom only plagiotrop branches or branches of fruit, the flowers grow in panicles of flowers, while the flower panicles grow on the segments of branches of fruit that face to face with leave. As another flower, the flower pepper is also composed of parts, among others:

a. Flower crown or base of the flower. This flowers canopy is green, or attached to the panicle. If fruit already grown, this canopy will become a basis of fruit, because the fruit is not stemmed.

b. Flower crown. Yellow-green and grow at the base of the flower. The shape is very small and delicate, being several days after pollination, the petals will wilt and eventually dry up.

c. Pistil. Pistil is the female tool, this section is a continuation of the ovary.

Pepper fruit has the following characteristics:

The Fruit:
Shape and color of the fruit: pepper fruit is round, hard seeds and soft-skinned fruit. Young fruit skin is green, while the old yellow. And when the fruit is ripe turns into red, slimy with a sweet taste. After dried then become black pepper.

In the process of growth, pepper fruit attached to the panicle, size 4-6 mm skin and seeds, while seeds large are 3-4 mm. Seed weight averaged 4.5 g.

Fruit Skin or pericarp consists of three layers, include:

a. Epicarp = outer skin,

b. Mesocarp = middle skin,

c. Endocarp = inner skin.

Seeds: Inside the skin, there are the seeds, which are the main products of the pepper tree; these seeds also have a layer of hard skin.

Black pepper and white pepper:

Black pepper and white pepper is actually the same, which is come from the same fruit of a plant called Piper nigrum. In the market, a black pepper and white pepper is solely due to the harvest treatment and after harvest processing.

White pepper is produced from the seeds of the pepper fruit that harvested when the fruit completely ripe or outer skin of the fruit is completely red. The skin pared until clean, and then dried. A dry peeled of clean seed ripe pepper is then named as white pepper. 

While the pepper fruit that harvested on half to ripe up to completely ripe then directly dry with all outer skin then named as black pepper. Therefore, to provide black pepper is simpler than to produce the white pepper. Western people generally prefer to choose black pepper than the white pepper; aroma of black pepper is stronger and spicier than the white pepper.

Scientific classification:

  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Magnoliidae
  •                           Order: Piperales
  •                               Family: Piperaceae
  •                                   Genus: Piper
  •                                       Species: Piper nigrum


Friday, 23 August 2013

Clove tree (Syzygium aromaticum)

Clove tree or Cengkeh - Indonesia (Syzygium aromaticum) is native to Indonesia, specifically from the Moluccas Island. In fact, the main part that utilized and has most economic value of clove tree is the flowers of cloves not its fruit, but people often mistakenly assume its flower as the fruit of clove. 

Since the colonial era in medieval clove has become important horticultural merchandise, clove is one of the most important spice ingredients for the European community. At the time of the Dutch occupation of Indonesia, cloves is one of their essential commodities, in addition to nutmeg, sugar etc.

In addition to Indonesia's clove is also cultivated in Madagascar, Zanzibar, India, and Sri Lanka, the mentioned countries are also the main producers of clove of the world.

More than only utilized in food and culinary, cloves is also an important part of cigarette called cigarette kretek in Indonesia, the clove oil also utilized as aroma therapy ingredient, and in some of Asia countries clove also used as herbal medicines. 


Characteristic of the tree:

Clove tree is a perennial plant that can grow up to 10-20 m, has an oval-shaped leaves that bloom in its shoots. Stalk of fruit at first green, and red if the flowers are blooming. Cloves ( its flower actually ) will be harvested if it reaches a length of 1.5-2 cm. Round logs, rough surface of the stem, usually have branches filled with lots of branches. Direction trunk grows upright (erectus), including monopodial branches, because they can be distinguished between the main stem and branches, branches tend to grow towards the top.

Additionally clove tree can survive up to tens of years. The bark can be colored dark gray, brown to black. Hard wood trunk, but rarely utilized in the manufacture of household utensils or other tools.

Clove tree root is a taproot, which consists of the principal roots then branch out, form its taproot spear-shaped (fusiform), the roots grow into small branches. Strong roots that can last up to tens or even hundreds of years. Its roots are usually able to go deep enough into the ground.

The clove tree leaf excluding incomplete because the leaves have a petiole (petiolus), leaf blade (lamina), but does not have the leaf midrib (vagina), oval-shaped leaves and flowering at the edges. Including compound leaves Leaf structure (circumscriptio) is lancet (lanceolatus), end (apex) is tapered (acustus), base (base folii) is tapered (acuminatus), bone structure leaves (nervatio) is pinnate (penninervis), leaf edges (border) is average (integer), and the meat leaves (intervenium) is like paper, thin but tough enough (papyraceus). This leaf is green., as in the mains stalk there is more than one leaf. Clove leaf size: The width ranges from 2-3 cm, and leaf length of approximately 7.5 -12.5 cm. 

The flower and its fruits:
Clove leaf appears on the top branches (flos terminalis) with short stalks and bunches (real-stemmed flowers sitting on the flower stalk utma). Clove tree flowers including finite compound flower, since the end of the main stems are always covered by flowers. Flower consist of stems (pedicellus), mains stalk (peduncle), and the base of the flower (repectaculum). Clove is a single flower (unisexualis) so they can be divided into male flowers (flos masculus) and females (flos femineus), the basic of flower (repectaculum) it the supporter of the stamens and pistils (andoginofor).

Clove is included in a single symmetric that can only be divided by a plane of symmetry into 2 parts. Flower color will vary according to the age of the tree. When young clove purplish color, and then turned into a greenish yellow and when old become light red. Cloves have stalks green fruit when young, then when the old red and bloom. The fruit including pseudo fruit, because there are parts of the flower take part in the formation of the fruit.

Clove very rarely allowed growing up to be a fruits, clove flowers will be harvested before the flowers bloom. Old flower is a major commodity that is taken from the clove tree. The clove tree starting to produce at about age of five.

Scientific classification:

  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Rosidae
  •                           Order: Myrtales
  •                               Family: Myrtaceae
  •                                   Genus: Syzygium
  •                                       Species: Syzygium aromaticum


Thursday, 22 August 2013

Chilli (Capsicum)

Chilli plant is basically divided into two main groups, namely large peppers (Capsicum annuum L.) and cayenne pepper (Capsicum frutescens L.) major chili divided into two groups, namely spicy chili (hot pepper) and chili paprika (sweet pepper).

Pepper (hot pepper) comes from mainland South America and Central America. Pepper plants grown from approximately 7500 years before Christ. Communities who first utilize and develop the chili was the Incas in South America, the Maya in Central America, and the Aztecs in Mexico. They use it as a spice in cooking.

Christopher Columbus landed on the coast of San Salvador on 12 October 1492 found that many locals use the bright red fruit as a cooking spice spicy taste. Then Columbus brought peppers from the Americas to Spain to be presented to Queen Isabella as the findings in the American continent.

In the 1500s, the Portuguese began to trade chillies to Macao and Goa, then go to India, China, and Thailand. Around 1513 the Portuguese empire in the Turkish occupied areas of Hormuz, the Persian Gulf. When Turkey occupied Hungary, chilli was cultivated in Hungary.

Now, many cultivars of chili pepper spread across the world, used in both food and medicine and presently India is the world's largest producer, consumer and exporter of chili peppers.

Characteristics of the tree:
Pepper plants including crops (annual) shaped shrub, with woody stems grow upright and highly branched. Mature plant height between 65-170 cm and canopy width 50-100 cm. In the world of plants (Plantarum), pepper plants, belonging to the plants that produce seeds (Spermatophyte), chili beans covered by a skin of the classic pieces that covered seed plants (Angiosperm). Pepper plants including seeds sides (Dicotyledoneae). Complete flower decoration, which consists of petals and crown, with the crown of leaves that attaches to one, so put in a sub-class Sympetalae. Chili included in eggplants family (Solanaceae).

Pepper plants are rooting taproot, which consists of the main root (primary) and secondary roots (lateral). Lateral roots will release fibers roots (tertiary roots). Primary root length ranged from 35-50 cm, while the lateral root spread with length ranging from 35-45 cm.

The main stem of pepper plants upright and sturdy, height about 30-40 cm, and a trunk diameter of about 1.5 to 3.0 cm. Woody main stem and greenish brown. In the intensive cultivation of chili on the main stem wood formation is taking place at the age of 30-40 days after planting (DAP). At each armpit leaves will grow, new shoots starting at age 10-15 DAP.

Terms of growth, the length of the pepper plant caused by the continuous growth of buds, such growth is called simpodial growth. Primary branches will form secondary branching then secondary branches will form tertiary branches continuously. In the intensive cultivation of chili will be formed around 11-17 branching at the flowering period.

Leaves light green pepper until dark, supported by leaf petiole. Bone-shaped pinnate leaves. Overall, the shape of the pepper plant leaves are oval with pointed leaf tips.

Like most family Solanaceae, shaped of flowers of pepper plants is like a trumpet (hyporcrateriformis). Pepper plants classified in full flower (completus) because it consists of flower petals (calyx), petals (Corrola), stamens (stamens), and pistil (pistillium). Male genitalia (stamens) and female genitalia (pistil) on pepper plants located in the same flower, so called androgynous (Hermaphroditus). Chilli flowers grow in branching (axillary), consists of six strands of green colored petals and five strands of white petals. Pistil stalk is white with greenish-yellow anthers. In one flower, there is one pistil and six stamens. Stalk white sari with a blue-purple anthers, after pollination will occur. At the time of the formation of the fruit, flower crown fall off, but the petals remain attached to the fruit. Fruit shape varies, depending on the variety.

The fruit:
Shape, size, and color of chilies are very varied, because there are so many varieties and its variety bring itself form and character. However, the majority of chili color are between green, yellow, and yellow-green when young, and become red or dark orange when old and ripe. However, there is also purple color of chili.

Nevertheless, there are similarities among all peppers, the taste; all pieces of chili have a sense of spicy arising from the substance named capsaicin, which is stored in the white vein of pepper, a media inside the chili fruit were seeds are attached. The capsaicin is increased appetite. The grade of spicy depending on variety of the fruit, and also the grow location.

In the spicy chilies that it contained vitamin C and beta-carotene (pro-vitamin A), which was more than fruits such as mango, pineapple, and watermelon. Even levels of minerals, especially calcium and phosphorus, mineral content exceeds that of the fresh fish.

While the seeds contain solanine, solamidine, solamargine, solasodine, solasomine and steroid saponins (kapsisidin), kapsisidin efficacious as an anti-biotic.

Nutritions details of Chilli fruit:
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy166 kJ (40 kcal)
Carbohydrates8.8 g
- Sugars5.3 g
- Dietary fiber1.5 g
Fat0.4 g
Protein1.9 g
Water88 g
Vitamin A equiv.48 μg 6%
- beta-carotene534 μg 5%
Vitamin B60.51 mg39%
Vitamin C144 mg 173%
Iron1 mg8%
Magnesium23 mg 6%
Potassium322 mg 7%
Capsaicin0.01g – 6 g
Source: USDA database

Scientific classification:

  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Asteridae
  •                           Order: Solanales
  •                               Family: Solanaceae (tribe eggplants)
  •                                   Genus: Capsicum
  •                                       Species: Capsicum annuum L.


Monday, 19 August 2013

Noni (Morinda citrifolia)

Noni (Morinda citrifolia), which is also known as the Queen of the Morinda, is a tropical fruit. So far tended to use this fruit as a herbal medicine, rather than as a table fruit or fresh fruit consumption. Not difficult to find these fruit extracts in a variety of packaging in stores herbal medicine.

Polynesian peoples who inhabited the region believed to be among the first to take advantage of this fruit as a food ingredient.  Furthermore, this fruit spread in almost all tropical regions in Southeast Asia.

Characteristics of the tree:
All parts of the plant: roots, stems, leaves, and fruit can be used as a source of nutrients and has a neutraceutical effect.

Noni tree height between 4-6 m, trunk twisted, and knaggy stiff, rough and have stuck taproot deep into the soil. Skin color outside of the tree is grayish brown or yellowish. Shiny leaves thick, oblong-shaped, measuring 15-50 x 5-17 cm. Rounded hump-type flowers and generally grow in axillary panicles leverage. Usually leverage leaves growing confronted with normal leaves. Stamens petals imbedded in the mouth. Anthers have two nipples. The flower blooms from the petals shaped like bunches. The flowers are fragrant and white.

Noni tree reaches maturity in about 17-20 months regarding to its growing condition. Grows well in almost all-tropical location condition: shady forest, open rocky and sandy shores, Noni tree also tolerant of drought conditions, and both of saline soils or secondary soils,  even though this tree also can grow well in a coralline atoll.

The fruit:
In a peak of production time, a Noni tree can product 4 up to 9 kg of fruit every month throughout the year, Noni is not a seasonal fruit. The color of fruit is dark green when young and become more light up until reach pale yellow when rape. There are black spots around its fruit body.  This fruit grouped as stone fruit, the fruit pulp arranged of pyramid form stone fruits, reddish brown.  Once completely ripe and soft, the fruit pulp will contain a lot of water. In this condition the smell of fruit will be alike smell of rotten cheese, the smell was caused by a mixture of capric acid and caproic acid, the volatile lipid compounds.

Noni fruit contains a variety of compounds that are essential for health. The results proved that noni fruit contains secondary metabolites that are beneficial to health, nutrition as well as diverse as vitamin A, C, niacin, thiamine and riboflavin, and minerals such as iron, calcium, sodium, and potassium. Several types of phytochemical compounds in the noni fruit are terpenes, acubin, lasperuloside, alizarin, anthraquinone substances, ascorbic acid, caproic acid, caprylic acid, scopoletin substances, damnakantal, and alkaloids.

Scientific classification:
  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Asteridae
  •                           Order: Rubiales
  •                               Family: Rubiaceae
  •                                   Genus: Morinda
  •                                        Species: Morinda citrifolia L.


Saturday, 17 August 2013

Banana

Banana is the common name given to the large-leaved giant herb plants extending from the tribe Musaceae. Some species (Musa acuminata and M. balbisiana) produce consumption fruit which is also named the same: Banana.

The fruit is arranged in bunches with groups such as a fingers but formed double.

Almost all bananas have yellow skin when ripe, though some were colored orange, red, green, purple, or even almost black, bananas, as food is a source of energy (carbohydrates) and minerals, especially potassium.

Bananas today has become part of the world carbohydrate source, some nations in Africa have used bananas as a staple food.

However, it turned out to be the region's center of plant diversity is Malesia region (Indonesian Islands, South East Asia, Papua, and Tropical Australia). Moderate Region Tropical Africa is a region of diversity minor.

Bananas can be main agricultural trade commodities for Central American countries, Brazil, Indonesia, and the Pacific Islands, while the main consumers are African and Central American nations.

Characteristic of the tree:
Banana trees grow well in tropical to subtropical regions, bananas can be grown in soil that is rich in humus, containing lime or heavy soil, the voracious plant food that bananas should be planted in soil rich in humus or with good fertilization.

Banana trees relatively tolerant to location altitude and drought of the land, for the tropical trees can be grown from the lowlands to a height of 2000 m, depending on varieties, however, banana trees do not grow in soil with a salt content of 0.07% or more.

Plant height: Not all banana plants have the same height. Height of the banana plant is divided into dwarf and normal. Banana plant height less than one meter including dwarf plants, whereas when the height of the plant is more than one meter including normal.

Trunk: divided into two kinds of original trunk called tubers, and the pseudo-stem, tubers is apparent stem and under the ground surface, as well as having many buds which are candidates for puppies, tubers is where the growth of roots. Pseudo-stem-sheath composed of leaf midrib cover each other, grows tall and sturdy, and is above the soil surface.

Pseudo stem color is usually green to yellowish green with black splotches. Pseudo stem has high water content with small cavities in it.

Leaves: petiole edges can be divided into (a) winged and pinched the bridge, (b) winged and do not pinch the trunk, and (c) winged and bumpy. Banana leaf shape is generally long, oblong, with a width that is not the same, the end leaves a blunt, flat edge arranged. Location of scattered leaves and stalks are arranged in a relatively long-sized leaves are easily torn. Leaves elongated bone located in the middle of the leaf, as well as the shape stands out. Upper leaf color light green to dark green, while the underside that not directly exposed to the sun a little more white, covered by a kind of natural soft powder.

Root system: root generally grows from bongo, on the sides and bottom, fibrous roots, and do not have a taproot. Root growth in general flocking toward the side below ground level and leads into the soil reaches 4-5 meters long. However, a range of roots only penetrate the soil at a depth of between 150-200 cm.

Banana Flower

Banana flower also called as heart of banana, grown and out from the rod tip. Banana flowers classified as a compound flower. The flower when fresh out from trunk still united, the form of the flower structures look like the human heart, the size is depending on the species. After a few days, the flower buds begin to open up and show real flower. Outer skin of the flower is red and the flowers at first glance are looks like a shrimp whitish yellow with 4-7cm long and 1-2 cm wide. Each flower has a single sepal, one petal, one pistil with many ovarian, and four stamens with pollen stalks 3-4 cm long. Each flower produces a single fruit, and because there are many flowers then a single bunch of flowers can produce 77-250 pieces are divided into 6-14 bunches.

The Fruit:
Banana fruit has the shape, size, sweetness, fruit pulp character, and the outer skin varies depending on the type of varieties. Banana varieties themselves are so diverse, there are bananas that can be directly consumed as fresh as a fruit serving, some are better when the processing is done in advance, either by boiling, roasting, frying, fermenting etc.

Immature bananas will not necessarily have the typical rounded shape and may be angular. Generally, bananas can range in size from 2 ½ inches to 12 inches in length and ¾ inch to 2 inches in width.

One of the most famous varieties of banana in the world is the Cavendish banana, but actually, there are so many kinds of bananas that has quality taste, aroma and fragrance that is not inferior to Cavendish.

If you visit Indonesia, Malaysia or other South East Asia countries try to enjoy their local bananas, like Ambon Bananas, Raja Bananas, Kepok Bananas etc. in Indonesia or Mas Bananas, Berangan Bananas, Tanduk Bananas etc. in Indonesia.

Bananas fruit is one of carbohydrate source, bananas also rich with Vitamin C and fiber. Here is the details of nutrition of bananas fruit:
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy371 kJ (89 kcal)
Carbohydrates22.84 g
- Sugars12.23 g
- Dietary fiber2.6 g
Fat0.33 g
Protein1.09 g
Thiamine (vit. B1)0.031 mg (3%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)0.073 mg (6%)
Niacin (vit. B3)0.665 mg (4%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.334 mg (7%)
Vitamin B60.4 mg (31%)
Folate (vit. B9)20 μg (5%)
Choline9.8 mg (2%)
Vitamin C8.7 mg(10%)
Iron0.26 mg(2%)
Magnesium27 mg(8%)
Manganese0.27 mg(13%)
Phosphorus22 mg(3%)
Potassium358 mg (8%)
Sodium1 mg (0%)
Zinc0.15 mg (2%)
Fluoride2.2 µg
Source: USDA database

Economic potential:
Bananas are part of the world food, however the banana tree can grow well only in tropical and sub-tropics regions.

Currently banana exports dominated by tropical countries that spread across various regions, from Asia, Africa up to South America, according to data released by the World Banana Forum - FAO, India is the major exporter of this agricultural products.  In 2011 India exported nearly 30 million tonnes of bananas (20% of world exports) to the world, then followed by China , Philippines, Ecuador, Brazil, and Indonesia.

Here is its statistical:
Source : World Banana Forum - FAO

From various sources, it is clear that production and world demand for tropical fruits is increasing from time to time, but in some major producing countries, production of the fruit is still relying on traditional agriculture, like in Indonesia, for example. On the other hand, the major industrial that played in banana cultivation tends to cultivating one or only a few types of bananas like Cavendish.

So, that is a possibility to develop an industrial scale to plant bananas to fulfill world demand and to offer more choice to world bananas consumers enjoying various kind of bananas varieties.

Scientific classification:

  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Liliopsida (dashed one / monocot)
  •                       Sub Class: Commelinidae
  •                           Order: Zingiberales
  •                               Family: Musaceae
  •                                   Genus: Musa
  •                                       Species: Musa paradisiaca, Musa acuminata, and Musa balbisiana




Wednesday, 14 August 2013

Chayote (Sechium edule)

Chayote tree (Sechium edule), is a vine that is allied with melons, cucumbers and squash. Originate from Central America or Mexico, but now the plants also spread to Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia and other tropical and subtropical areas.

One of the country's largest producer and exporter of fruits Chayote in the world today is Costa Rica.

In Southeast Asia, in addition to already cultivated, this plant also grows wild in the forests of oak, mixed forests, fields and gardens. This plant grows well at altitudes 900-1100 meters above sea level.

Young fruit of this plant which is also known as Chayote, consumed as a green vegetable, as well as branches and young leaves.

Characteristics of the tree:
Trunk : Soft, ribbed, many branches, and has twisted tendrils on the stem to other objects, generally coarse surface or slightly rough, green, and hairless. Pentagon-shaped and wrapped around, with a length of 50-2500 cm stems, new shoots grow through the armpit leaves.

Leaves: Single heart-shaped bony, with tapered ends, rough surface, 4-25 cm long with a width of between 3-20 cm, green color, with a round stem, petiole length ranges from 5-10 cm.

Flowers: Compound and grow from axillary panicles, with five petals titled, grooved crown, five stamens, anthers orange, one yellow pistil. Stamens and anthers attaches.

Root: off-white colored, taproot, highly branched, spherical to slightly square, roots spreading but shallow, root hairs are near the soil surface can only penetrate the soil 30-40 cm.

The fruit:
Growing fruit hanging on the tree stems, with disorganized curved surfaces, when young dark green fruit, but generally becomes brighter when more mature.  Color of old fruit / ripe usually pale green, however there are some varieties that stay green from young to mature. When still very young fruit grow spines on the outer skin, then the thorns will fall out by itself when fruit  growing ripen.

Plants began flowering at the age of 3-5 months after planting. Fruit harvested after 3 months old, then the next harvest is done once a week. Squash plants are usually productive for 3-4 years. One plant can produce as many as 500 pieces. Chayote production can reach 8-10 tonnes / ha per year.

Rounded elongated fruit shape, enlarged at the end of the fruit, while the base of the fruit is smaller. Seeds located in the middle of the fruit pulp, flattened, smashed two and white.

Chayote fruit consumed while the fruit is still young until late old as vegetables, generally not eaten fresh but through the process.

Sechium edule (Chayote fruit)  contain saponins, alkaloids and tannins, while the leaves contain saponins, flavonoids and polyphenols.


Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy80 kJ (19 kcal)
Carbohydrates4.51 g
- Sugars1.66 g
- Dietary fiber1.7 g
Fat0.13 g
Protein0.82 g
Thiamine (vit. B1)0.025 mg (2%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)0.029 mg (2%)
Niacin (vit. B3)0.47 mg (3%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.249 mg (5%)
Vitamin B60.076 mg (6%)
Folate (vit. B9)93 μg (23%)
Vitamin C7.7 mg (9%)
Vitamin E0.12 mg (1%)
Vitamin K4.1 μg (4%)
Calcium17 mg (2%)
Iron0.34 mg (3%)
Magnesium12 mg (3%)
Phosphorus18 mg (3%)
Potassium125 mg (3%)
Zinc0.74 mg (8%)
Source: USDA database
                              
Scientific classification:
  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Dilleniidae
  •                           Order: Violales
  •                               Family: Cucurbitaceae
  •                                   Genus: Sechium
  •                                       Species: Sechium edule

Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus)

Winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) is a type of vine pods, in Indonesia and Southeast Asian countries the young fruit used as a green vegetable. This plant is a tropical legume, native to Papua New Guinea. It grows abundantly in hot, humid equatorial countries, from the Philippines and Indonesia to India, Burma, Thailand, and Sri Lanka. It does well in humid tropics with high rainfall. There are also varieties that can be grown in most areas of the U.S.

Winged bean plants classified as ground cover and effective green manure, because this plant includes a best nitrogen-fixing plants from the air. In winged bean cultivation, fertilizer N is not required at all. 

Characteristic of the tree:
Vines, shrubs forming,  in cultivation usually given buffer, but if left without support will cover the soil surface. The trunk is cylindrical, jointed, rarely woody. In the tropical regions this plant can grow well from lowlands to highlands (up to a height of 1600 m above sea level). Winged bean plants can live in the land with low organic matter, loam, sandy, and the soil is dry.

A compound leaf with three leaflets triangular, 7.0 to 8.5 cm long, pinnate leaves bones, lying or intermittent. Petiole is round, grooved, notched and  elongated at the top, thickened at the base and tip, green with yellow spots. 

The flowers are single flower, butterfly-shaped, growing in axillary, sessile, the bottom petals united, four titled at the top , curved pistil stalk, the stigma has white hair, the base of the stamens are united, and the anthers  are yellow to yellow to blue-tinged, can be used as a raw of food color.

Plant physiology, winged bean is very sensitive to frost. In addition, he was a short day plant, flowering only if the length of the day is less than a critical mass (about 12 hours).

The Fruit:
Winged bean fruit is usually used when young as a green vegetable.  Winged bean fruit in the form of pods, elongated rectangular-shaped, serrated edge, having length 15-30 cm and green.  Seeds 8-10 mm diameter round and brown, while its roots in the form of brownish white taproot. 

Winged bean seeds with soybeans or other legumes that can be processed into tempeh (a fermented soybean raw food origin of Indonesia). Winged bean combined with rice can be processed into high-protein soybean tempeh.

Nutrition fact:
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy1,711 kJ (409 kcal)
Carbohydrates41.7 g
- Dietary fiber25.9 g
Fat16.3 g
- saturated2.3 g
- monounsaturated6 g
- polyunsaturated4.3 g
Protein29.65 g
Thiamine (vit. B1)1.03 mg (90%)
Riboflavin (vit. B2)0.45 mg (38%)
Niacin (vit. B3)3.09 mg (21%)
Pantothenic acid (B5)0.795 mg (16%)
Vitamin B60.175 mg (13%)
Folate (vit. B9)45 μg (11%)
Calcium440 mg (44%)
Iron13.44 mg (103%)
Magnesium179 mg (50%)
Manganese3.721 mg (177%)
Phosphorus451 mg (64%)
Potassium977 mg (21%)
Sodium38 mg (3%)
Zinc4.48 mg (47%)
Source: USDA database

Scientific classification:
  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Rosidae
  •                           Order: Fabales
  •                               Family: Fabaceae (legumes tribe)
  •                                   Genus: Psophocarpus
  •                                       Species: Psophocarpus tetragonolobus Dc


Rose apple (Eugenia aquea or Syzygium aqueum)

Rose apple (Eugenia aquea or Syzygium aqueum), is a member of the tribe of Myrtaceae, originating from Southeast Asia, usually served as table fruit, or used as a salad ingredient, also can be used as a candied or pickled.

The wood is hard, reddish pretty color and good to be used as a building material, as long as it does not hit the ground directly, but  usually just the trunk size is too small.  The wood is either be used as firewood.

Rose Apple trees growth spread across south East Asia, but generally, trees are not grown in bulk. The tree is usually planted as a shade plant.

Characteristics of the tree:
Rose apple is a herbaceous plant, with a height of 3-10 m. Often with swollen stem-bent and branched from the base of the tree.

Single leaf located opposite one another, with the size of stemmed 0.5-1.5 cm.  Leaves, heart-shaped oblong to round eggs inverted oval, 7-25 x 2.5 to 16 cm, slightly aromatic smell when crushed. Rose apple leaves belonged to an incomplete single leaf, because it only has a petiole (petioles) and leaf blade (lamina), which is commonly referred to stem leaves. Reinforced pinnate leaves, vein (Costa), the bones of the branches (lateral nerve) was evident, and leaf veins (vein) is clearly visible. Meat leaves, thin as parchment (perkamenteus), leaf surface glabrous and has leaves with a flat edge. Tip of the leaf,  forms an obtuse angle (obtuse). The base of the leaves do not form a corner but curvy, petiole cylindrical and not thickened at the base.

Bouquet of flowers in panicles at the end of the branch (terminal) or appear in the armpit leaves have fallen (axial), contains 3-7 florets. Whitish yellow flowers, with petals tube about 1 cm in length; petals round to triangular, 5-7 mm; between 0.75 to 2 cm stamens and pistil stalk that reaches 17 mm.

This plant is a tree-shaped, clear stem, woody (lignosus), cylindrical, erect, rough skin, blackish brown trunk,  the trees grow upright. Bough branches inclined to grow upwards but there also grows horizontally. 

The fruit:

There are several varieties of Rose apple, with a variety of fruit shape are slightly different from one another. But in general, the fruit is not only reaching a maximum of a handful of large, shaped top with a small base and the tip of a very wide (often with a curve that separated the sides of the base to the tip); 1.5-2 x 2.5-3.5 cm ; crowned fleshy petals and curved; outer side is white, reddish green to red. White pieces of meat, lots of watery, barely scented; sour taste sweet or sour.

Rose-apples are a popular fruit among children in tropical areas, according to Purdue University. The fruits provide thiamin, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, iron, potassium and sulfur. The rose apple also is a source of fiber and is low in fat and calories, with 56 calories per 100g of the edible portion of the plant.

Scientific classification:
  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Rosidae
  •                           Order: Myrtales
  •                               Family: Myrtaceae
  •                                   Genus: Eugenia
  •                                       Species: Eugenia aquea Burm.F
Other Version:
  •                                             Genus: Syzygium
  •                                                  Species: Syzygium aqueum.



Wednesday, 7 August 2013

Longan tree (Dimocarpus longan, Euphoria Longana)

Longan tree (Dimocarpus longan,  Euphoria Longana) is a fruit plant that came from mainland of Asia and Southeast Asia. Cultivated throughout the tropics and subtropics, but primarily in Thailand, Indonesia, China, Taiwan, Vietnam, Australia, and in the USA, Florida, and Hawaii, Litchi fruit flavor is very sweet, juicy, and fresh,  it is one of the better-known tropical members of the soap berry family to the lychee roommates also belongs. This tree can grow well in sub-tropical and tropical.

Characteristics of the tree:
Longan is more suitable to be planted in the plains with an altitude between 200-600 m above sea level, with a wet climate type,  dry season no more than four months.  Ground water between 50-200 cm. 1500-3000 mm rainfall per year with a 9-12 month 2-4 months wet and dry, cold night temperatures (15-20o C) during the dry season encourages flowering plants.

Litchi cultivation is generally carried out intensively on the ground in direct sunlight to make the planting hole. Soil to plant must meet the following requirements: Have a pH 5 to 6.5. Fertile and friable, contains a lot of organic matter. Have good drainage, the water does not stagnate but enough water especially in the dry season.

Longan has a very interesting habitus, forms a canopy like an umbrella.  Leafy, small size, long (with a tapered leaf), and dark green,  branched trunk, branches horizontal direction and meetings,  longan tree can reach a height of 40 m and a trunk diameter of up to about 1 m. Longan plants rooted riding, and numerous side roots, long, and strong.

Longan flowers there are dioecious, but some are monoecious (hermaphrodite). Plants have only male stamens (staminate) without showing any stigma. Flowers generally grow at the tip (flos terminalis), 4-80 cm in length, with a bushy fur felt, form an umbrella like a fork,  petals five strands, length up to 6 mm.

The Fruit:
Longan fruit is round, the size about of marbles.  His skin is light brown to black with a surface rather rash - pimples. The flesh is translucent white and watery, very sweet taste with a distinctive fragrance.  Seeds globular composed of two pieces, and leather black beans. Flesh white seeds, containing carbohydrates, a little oil, and saponins. Litchi fruit can be eaten straight, made syrup, made jam, and made a canned fruit.

Besides having a delicious flavor, litchi is also rich in nutrients. In general, the 100 grams of meat longan fruit nutritional value which is quite good as shown in Table 1 below: 
61 kcal calories, 1 g protein, 0.1 g fat, 15.8 g carbohydrates, 0.4 g fiber, 10 mg calcium, 42mg phosphorus, iron 1.2 mg, 0.04 mg Thiamin and Asorbid Acid 6mg.

Scientific classification:
  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Rosidae
  •                           Order: Sapindales
  •                               Family: Sapindaceae
  •                                   Genus: Euphoria
  •                                       Species:  Euphoria Longana


Tuesday, 6 August 2013

Tamarind (Tamarindus indica)

Tamarind tree (Tamarindus indica) including tropical plants, some literatures mentioned that this plant origin is East African savanna. Since thousands of years, this plant has been venturing into tropical Asia and later to the Caribbean and Latin America. In many places that could be an ideal location to grow, these plants like a wilder part in the whole leaf forests and savannas.

Tamarind trees can grow well in low land up to about 1,000 m (sometimes up to 1,500 m) above sea level, on sandy or clay soil, especially in the territory that have a long dry season. Now, tamarind is an important fruit especially for the South East Asian Countries, such as Indonesia, Malaysia, or Thailand. The fruit has close relation with their modern food and food industrial, or even with herbal medicine.

Characteristics of the tree:
Tamarind trees including large-trunked trees, always green (not experienced the fall of the leaf), can reach 30 m high, with a trunk diameter of up to 2 m at the base. Bark grayish brown, rough and break, grooved-vertical grooves, shady and dense leafy canopy, wide and rounded.

A pinnately even compound leaves, 5-13 cm long, located alternate, with leaves like ribbons tapered fulcrum, whitish pink. Child leaves narrow oblong, 8-16 pairs, each measuring 1 to 3.5 cm × 0.5-1, brimmed flat, sloping, and rounded base, rounded to slightly notched tip.

Flowers arranged in loose bunches, leaves in the armpits or on the end of branches, up to 16 cm in length. Butterfly flower with petals and leaves crown 4 pieces 5 pieces, fragrant, crown whitish yellow with red veins brown, to 1.5 cm.

The fruit:
Pods and bloated, almost cylindrical, crooked or straight, to 10 grain seed, often with a constriction between the two seeds, fruit skin (eksokarp) hardened scaly brown or gray, with veins of clay that hardens and similar threads. Fruit flesh (mesocarp) greenish white when young, becoming red-brown to black when it is ripe, sweet and sour taste when ripe, sticky flesh. Seeds dark brown, shiny and hard, somewhat square, while still young, the fruit completely sour taste.

Tamarinds, raw, Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz): Energy 239 kcal (1,000 kJ), Carbohydrates 62.5 g,  Fat 0.6 g, Protein 2.8 g, Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.428 mg (37%), Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.152 mg (13%), Niacin (vit. B3) 1.938 mg (13%), Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.143 mg (3%), Vitamin B6 0.066 mg (5%), Folate (vit. B9) 14 μg (4%), Choline 8.6 mg (2%), Vitamin C 3.5 mg (4%), Vitamin E 0.1 mg (1%), Vitamin K 2.8 μg (3%), Calcium 74 mg (7%), Iron 2.8 mg (22%), Magnesium 92 mg (26%), Phosphorus 113 mg (16%), Potassium 628mg (13%), Sodium 28 mg (2%) and  Zinc 0.1 mg (1%)
Source: USDA Database 

Scientific classification:
  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Rosidae
  •                           Order: Fabales
  •                               Family: Fabaceae (legumes tribe)
  •                                   Genus: Tamarindus
  •                                       Species: Tamarindus indica.

Sunday, 4 August 2013

Winter Cherry (Physalis angulata)



Cutleaf Groundcherry or Wild Tomato or Camapu or Winter Cherry (Physalis angulata), this is a kind of small herb that commonly grows as wild plant near to tropical forest, paddy field or garden which is rich with sunlight.  The fruit of this tree, when ripe covered by enlarged calyx. The fruit is popular with the kids. All parts of plants, from the leaves to the roots and usually dried for using as traditional medicine ingredients.

Characteristics of the tree:
One year old herb (annual plant), upright, normal height of about 1 m. Ribbed stem and sharp-pointed hollow, round egg-shaped leaves elongated, pointy from ,  leaves dimension about  2.5 to 10.5 × 5-15 cm. Flowers growing in the armpits, with upright stems, purplish, with a nod end. Pentagonal petals, green with purplish ribs. The form of crown is similar a bells, five shallow notched, light yellow to dark yellow and brown stains on the inside of the neck,  7-9 mm in height.   The color of stalk pollen is pale yellow, while the pollen heads light blue.

Fruit core contained in a bubble wrap egg-shaped petals tipped tapering, yellowish green, with purple ribs, 2-4 cm in length, yellowish when ripe, sweet and kids love.

This plant originated of America and spread to Pacific,  Australia and South East Asia. Well grows up to 1600 above the sea level.

This plant employed in herbal medicine systems, in some countries like Brazil, Peru, and Indonesia.

Physalis angulata leaf, useful as a cure for a broken bone, dropsy, boils, ulcers, heart booster, sprains,
stomach pain, and gonorrhea. While the fruit itself is often eaten directly to treat epilepsy, difficult urination, and jaundice.

Physalis angulata tree contains the active compounds include saponins (shoots), flavonoids (leaves and buds), polyphenols, and fisalin (fruit), Withangulatin A (fruit), palmitic acid and stearic (seed), alkaloids (root), Chlorogenik acid (stems and leaves), tannins (fruit), kriptoxantin (fruit), vitamin C and sugars (fruits). Can be used as antihiperglikemi, antibacterial, antiviral, immunostimulatory and immunosuppressive (immunomodulatory), anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, analgesic, and cytotoxic. Also as a laxative urine (diuretic), neutralize toxins, relieve cough, activate the glands of the body and anti-tumor.

Scientific classification:
  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Asteridae
  •                           Order: Solanales
  •                               Family: Solanaceae (tribe eggplants)
  •                                   Genus: Physalis
  •                                       Species: Physalis angulata.


Nutmeg tree (Myristica fragrans)

Nutmeg tree (Myristica fragrans) is a fruit tree belonging to the genus Myristica. The most important species of the genus Myristica is Myristica fragrans  (Nutmeg), this tree is believed to originate from Maluku (Moluccas) Islands, especially Banda Island, who is now a part of the territory of Indonesia.

Since the first, Nutmeg has become important spice and essential commodities; it is said even since the days of the Roman Empire. Nutmeg is mentioned in the "Old" a Pliny encyclopedia, that life in Roman Empire times.

European explorers are those who spread these tropical trees to other parts of Africa such as Mauritius, to Grenada in the Caribbean and several other Latin American countries.

Tree characteristics:
Nutmeg tree has a height of 4-15 meters and are unisex (dioecious), trees only produce only male or female flowers. Therefore, usually a male tree planted among 10 female trees. However, sources says that there is a tree that produces both male and female flowers,  but this is rare.

The leaves are elliptical slim. The fruit is oval shaped like a lemon, yellow, fleshy, and flavorful distinctive because it contains essential oils in the flesh. When ripe, the skin and flesh of the fruit open and the seeds will be seen draped in red mace. Each fruit produces one brown seeds.

Nutmeg trees including hardwood trees, the first harvest was 7 to 9 years after the tree has grown and reached a maximum production capacity after 25 years. Growth can reach 20m and can reach hundreds of years age.

Towering above and to the side, the tree crown tapered, pyramidal-shaped (cone), oval (cylindrical) and spherical with relatively regular branching, meeting foliage, with leaves that criss cross layout. Male flowers form somewhat different to the female flowers, although the flower color is also yellow, with a diameter of 1.5 mm and a length of ± 3 mm.

Male flowers crown, united from the base of the 5/8 sections and then divided into 3 sections. Imperfectly developed petals, shaped like a circular ring at the base of the crown.  Cylindrical stamens and a united stalk, length ± 2 mm. Stamen attached to the stalk forming lines totaling 8 pieces and pairs. Between the lines is limited by the small lane ± 1/10 mm in width.

The Fruit:



Nutmeg fruit is drupe fruit types and has different fruit shape between different trees. There is a tree that produces fruit is rounded and there is also producing a pear-shaped fruit. On the average weight is in the range of nutmeg 89 g and a diameter of about 5.6 cm.  When the fruit is ripe, the outer skin of fruit that is yellow, and has a thickness of 1.5 cm split in half and expose the purplish red shiny seeds. The seeds are covered with aryl called 'mace', the color is red and attached to the base of the seed.  When dried the cover of the seed will be brown color and strong enough. Nutmeg outer skin has sour taste when eaten directly in a fresh, but can be used as a dry or wet candied, warm spicy taste and match enjoyed in cold temperate areas. While its seeds, has a special aroma and flavor as well as being an important part of today cuisines aroma and taste.  

The core of nutmeg seed is the most wanted by peoples. This part has highest economic value and a world commodity.

More than only used to be consumed as a food, Nutmeg also produce some essentials oil that used in pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries.

Nutmeg (Myristica fragrans), Ground form,Nutritional value per 100 g:
Energy 525 Kcal  26%, Carbohydrates 49.29 g 38%, Protein 5.84 g 10%, Total Fat 36.31 g 180%, Cholesterol 0 mg 0%, Dietary Fiber 20.8 g 55%, Folates  76 µg 19%, Niacin 1.299 mg 8%, Pyridoxine 0.160 mg 12%, Riboflavin 0.057 mg 4%, Thiamin 0.346 mg 29%, Vitamin-A 102 IU 3.5%, Vitamin C 3 mg 5%, Sodium 16 mg 1%, Potassium 350 mg 7.5%, Calcium 184 mg 18%,  Copper  1.027 mg 114%, Iron 3.04 mg 38%, Magnesium 183 mg 46%, Manganese 2.900 mg 126%, Phosphoru  213 mg 30% and Zinc 2.15 mg 20%. (Source: USDA National Nutrient data base)

Production and economic fact:
Nutmeg powder is worldwide consumed as part of seasoning and food content.  For the it’s seed, annual production worldwide production was reached 9,000 to 12,000 tonnes.  With Indonesia and Grenada dominated its production and export market share each share 72% and 20% respectively.  The principal import markets are the European Community, the United States, Japan, and India. Singapore and the Netherlands are major re-exporters.  At the other side annual  worldwide demand is about 9000 tonnes, the supply and demand for this agro product is according to Wikipedia data is tend to supply higher than demand.

However, there is no pricing fact showing that the nutmeg price is tending to constantly down. In fact, nutmeg price was constantly raised in average. 

By steam distillation, the plant  also producing various kind of essential oil,  like d-camphene d-pinene, limonene, d-borneol, l-terpineol, geraniol, safrol, and myristicin.  Essential oil usually used in the perfumery and pharmaceutical industries. 

Scientific classification:
  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Magnoliidae
  •                           Order: Magnoliales
  •                               Family: Myristicaceae
  •                                   Genus: Myristica
  •                                       Species: Myristica fragrans