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Thursday, 25 July 2013

Guava (Psidium guajava)


Guava (Psidium guajava), is a tropical plant from Brazil, which then spread to many other tropical countries, and became a popular fruit in there. Has a green rind when young and turn yellow when ripe and have white or red meat fruit and sweet-sour taste, Guava contain a lot of vitamin C.

Guava leaves contain tannins, eugenol (essential oils), fatty oil, resin, tannin substances, triterpinoid, apfel acid. While fruit contains amino acids (tryptophan, lysine), calcium, phosphorus, iron, sulfur, vitamin A, B1, and C, however, guava leaf not common to consume and only used as part of herbal medicine.

These plants include Myrtaceae family, grown in the lowlands to the highlands 1,200 meters above sea level; in loose soil to clay soils, especially in open areas and plenty of water.

Characteristics of the tree: 

Surface of the outer skin of guava tree is brown and squishy. If the bark is peeled guava, stem wood surface will look wet. Generally patterned forms ovate leaves with a rather large size. The flowers are small white and came from behind the armpit leaves. These plants can thrive in low-lying areas until at an altitude of 1200 meters above sea level. At the age of 2-3 years are beginning to bear fruit guava. Seeds many and found in the flesh.

Guava has branched taproot (ramosus) long cone-shaped, growing straight down, much branched branches and branches again branched, thus giving greater power to the trunk, and a very extensive root zone, to be able to absorb more water and nutrients.

Generally have a larger trunk at the bottom, getting to the top is much smaller, so the trunk can be viewed as a cone, or pyramid has a very elongated and branching.
- Forms of guava branch on the woody and smooth surface and visible loss of crust (the skin of the dead)
- Direction stems grow upright (Homo)
- Guava has a sulphurous short branches (virgula),  small branches with segments,  short segments that in addition to the leaves is also a supporter of flowers and fruit.

In general, color of the leaves on the upper side looks greener slick and shiny when compared with the lower side because the top layer more color to green, guava leaves have a wrinkled surface (rogosus).

Fruit:

Guava fruit has the sole true, it means the fruit is the case of a flower with only one ovary and have more than one seed. Guava is included in a true single fleshy fruit (curnosus) and round fruit shape.

The color of the outer skin is light green to dark green, red meat or white fruit with many seeds inside, elongated oval shape fruit. Guava fruit can be consumed straight, made juice, and serve food other processed ingredients.

Nutrition Content:

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz):  Energy 285 kJ (68 kcal), Carbohydrates  14.32 g, Fat 0.95 g, Protein 2.55 g, Vitamin A equiv.  31 μg (4%), Thiamine (vit. B1)  0.067 mg (6%), Riboflavin (vit. B2) .04 mg (3%), Niacin (vit. B3)  1.084 mg (7%), Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.451 mg (9%),Vitamin B6  0.11 mg (8%), Folate (vit. B9)  49 μg (12%), Choline  7.6 mg (2%), Vitamin C  228.3 mg (275%), Vitamin K 2.2 μg (2%), Calcium  18 mg (2%), Iron  0.26 mg (2%), Magnesium  22 mg (6%), Manganese 0.15 mg (7%), Phosphorus  40 mg (6%), Potassium  417 mg (9%), Sodium 2 mg (0%), Zinc 0.23 mg (2%), Lycopene 5204 µg. (Source : USDA Nutrient Database).

Economic potential:

Guavas are now cultivated and naturalized throughout the tropics and subtropics in Africa, South Asia, Southeast Asia, the Caribbean, subtropical regions of North America, Hawaii, New Zealand, Australia and Spain.

However, difficult to find valid data about how much economic value is now revolve regarding to Guava business.

What is certain this fruit is a fruit favored by many people in different parts of the world, rich in benefits and relatively low in the cultivation process so that the economic potential for developing horticulture is definitely promising.

Currently various studies conducted intensively in several countries to improve the quality of fruit flavors, shorten fruitful and increase the durability of tree disease.

Scientific classification:
Kingdom         :         Plantae
(unranked)      : Angiosperms
(unranked)      : Eudicots
(unranked)      : Rosids
Order             : Myrtales
Family             : Myrtaceae
Subfamily        : Myrtoideae
Tribe               : Myrteae
Genus             : Psidium