Follow my blog with Bloglovin Worldwide Fruits List: July 2013

Wednesday, 31 July 2013

Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis)

Breadfruit (Artocarpus altilis) is the name of a type of tree and its fruit at all. Breadfruit does not have seeds and has a padded section, which is similar to the bread after it is cooked or fried. Because of this, the Europeans know it as "bread fruit.” 

This plant is Polynesia origin, then spread to the South East Asia region.  Now, breadfruit is an important food source of carbohydrates in the various islands in the tropics, especially in the Pacific and Southeast Asia.  Breadfruit can be cooked in different ways: boiled, fried, roasted, or grilled. To make it durable and stored longer, cooked fruit is sliced and dried in the sun or in a furnace.  In Pacific islands, the excess harvest breadfruit will be buried in holes in the ground and allowed to ferment a few weeks away, so it turns into a paste like cheese lasting, nutritious and can be made into a kind of baked cake. 

Characteristics of the tree:
Breadfruit tree is basically a tall tree when grown in natural forests, can reach 30 m, but in rural areas, usually only a dozen feet high. Multiplication results with clones produce shorter trees and low branching, huge trunk and straight, up to 8 m, often with roots boards (buttresses) low and elongated.

Large horizontal branching and leafy, arranged alternately; leaves 20-40 × 20-60 cm, pinnate share in, wiry and somewhat hard as leather, shiny dark green on the upper side, dull, rough and fluffy on the bottom. Leaf buds covered by a large cone-shaped fulcrum. All parts of the tree issued a white sap (latex) when injured.
Flowers grow in axillary panicles, near the end of the branch, male flowers form is long rod-shaped grains. Hanging, 15-25 cm, light green and yellow when ripe, yellow pollen and easily blow away by the wind. Female’s compound flowers are round or cylindrical, 5-7 × 8-10 cm, green.

Fruit compound derived from female compound flowers, with a diameter of 10-30 cm. Yellowish-green rind, with thorns that reduces to the eye pattern facet or aspect-4-6 in the skin.

Breadfruit fruit does not produce seeds, and flowers on the top of the tent together, growing into the 'meat fruit' breadfruit.

Breadfruit like tropical climate: summer temperatures (20-40 ˚ C), a lot of rainfall (2000-3000 mm per year) and humid (relative moisture 70-90%), and is more suitable in the lowlands, below 600 m asl., Although encountered up to about 1500 m asl. Seedlings grow better in the shade, but then require full sun to grow. Although most of its cultivars will grow well in alluvial fertile soils, deep and well drained, but there are varieties that grow well in the marshy soil, limestone soil, soil brackish and others.

The fruit:
Breadfruit tree can produce up to 800 pieces of fruit per tree per year in the peak of production time. Each fruit weighs between 400-1200 grams, but there are also varieties that fruit up to 5 kg. The tree starting to fruit at 5 years of age and will continue to produce up to 50 years. The production peak starting from 8 – 9 years of age and continuing for next some years  depending of cultivation quality.

Fruit form is generally round, but some are oval. His skin thick but not hard and have spines that also not hard. Skin color is light green to dark green, white flesh has a fibrous fruits like jackfruit.

Fruit is generally harvested when young utilized as carbohydrates resources, processed simply by steaming, boiling or frying. Polynesian society even familiar to brood breadfruit for fermentation, and produces a kind of food that richer nutrient. Today the industry has started to produce flour from breadfruit that can be used as raw material for variety of foods.

Breadfruit is roughly 25% carbohydrates and 70% water. It has an average amount of vitamin C (20 mg/100 g), small amounts of minerals (potassium and zinc) and thiamin (100 μg/100 g).

Scientific classification:
  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Dilleniidae
  •                           Order: Urticales
  •                               Family: Moraceae (jackfruit tribal)
  •                                   Genus: Artocarpus
  •                                       Species: Artocarpus communis Forst


Cashew (Anacardium occidentale)

Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) is a plant from the Anacardiaceae tribe, originally from Brazil. In
botany, the plant was not a member of the  guava group (Myrtaceae) or legumes (Fabaceae), but actually more closely related to the mango (Anacardiaceae tribe). 

As a fruit, Cashew is unique, because the seed is not located inside, but located outside of the flesh. The seed protected by thick and hard outer skin, what commonly known as cashew fruits (flesh) actually only a pseudo fruit, the “fruit of cashew” only functioned as nutrition supplier to the seed. And then what we knows as Cashew Nut actually  is the core of the fruit, after going through several treatment processes.

What is commonly known as the "fruit", actually is the flower base (Receptaculum) which expands after conception. This flower base is green or yellow when young and then turn into red, old yellow or reddish yellow when old / ripe.

The main producer of this agro commodity are Nigeria, Philippines, Tanzania, Vietnam, India and Indonesia.

Characteristic of the tree:
Medium-sized tree, up to 12 m high, with a wide canopy, highly branched, and evergreen,  flexible tree canopy, can be high and narrow, or low and wide, depending on the growth environment.

Leaves located on the top branches. Stemmed leaves, round egg upside down, most of the base tapered and rounded ends, curved inward, hairless, 8-22 × 5-13 cm.

Monoecious, mixed androgynous flowers, gathered in a flat smooth-haired panicles, 15-25 cm wide. Calyx hairy, 4-5 mm. Spiky crown, lk 1 cm, white then red, haired. Geluk fruit is dark brown, bent, lk 3 cm high.

The wood is light brown and low value, very rarely used for residential building materials and home furnishings; although can be used as firewood or utensils junky material.

Kind of sap that hardens in the open air (gum) generated from the injured trunk. This gum good to be used on adhesive book, as well as prevent termite infestation; were also good for glue or plywood frame.

The fruit:
The economic value of this plant is in the”real seed” as the raw of Cashew Bean.  Even though, the flesh that actually is the flower base also consumed as source of various vitamins.  

Cashew color is brown, dark brown, dark brown-black. Hard and thick skinned to protect his core. Hard shell does not only consist of a single layer, but there are two layers and contains a sap called urushiol, which can cause human skin irritation.

What is known as the cashew nuts in the culinary world is actually the seed of the cashew fruit. Before becoming a "nut" raw ready to fried, required rather long process, because cashew can not simply be processed after the skin removed.

The production process of a cashew nut starting from seed drying  for 2 days full tropical sun, outer skin exfoliation, exfoliation of the epidermis preceded by drying and boiling of the content of the fruit, and then draining back  before  the "nuts" are ready to the next food preparations process.

In the centers of production area, cashew fruit pseudo sometimes also sold in the market, the fruit liked by everyone because of the sour taste fresh. The sweet taste of cashew fruit is allowed to be developed as a syrup or fermented to obtain alcoholic beverages such as wine (slightly fermented fruit juice) and can also be distilled to a high alcohol content beverage. Untreated fruit apparent in the areas of production used as animal feed.

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz) of cashew nuts, raw:
Energy 2,314 kJ (553 kcal), Carbohydrates 30.19 g, - Starch 23.49 g, - Sugars 5.91 g, - Dietary fiber 3.3 g, Fat 43.85 g, - saturated 7.78 g, - monounsaturated 23.8 g, - polyunsaturated 7.85 g, Protein 18.22 g, Water 5.2 g, Thiamine (vit. B1) .42 mg (37%), Riboflavin (vit. B2) .06 mg (5%), Niacin (vit. B3) 1.06 mg (7%), Pantothenic acid (B5) .86 mg (17%), Vitamin B6 .42 mg (32%), Folate (vit. B9) 25 μg (6%), Vitamin C .5 mg (1%), Vitamin E .9 mg (6%), Calcium 37 mg (4%), Iron 6.68 mg (51%), Magnesium 292 mg (82%), Manganese 1.66 mg (79%), Phosphorus 593 mg (85%), Potassium 660 mg (14%), Sodium 12 mg (1%), Zinc 5.78 mg (61%).

Scientific classification:

  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Rosidae
  •                           Order: Sapindales
  •                               Family: Anacardiaceae
  •                                   Genus: Anacardium
  •                                       Species: Anacardium occidentale L.


Tuesday, 30 July 2013

Coffee beans (Coffea)

Coffee (Coffea), almost people entire the world love to drink coffee, from ordinary coffee drinker up to crazy coffee lover. However, did you know that coffee drink which is made from a seed of plant scientifically identified as Coffea species and have two major varieties named Arabica Coffee and Robusta Coffee originally come from Ethiopia about 1000 BC? Yes, this exotic drink has a long history before come up to our table in the morning as a first friend that comes to us in the morning.

Some expert of coffee said that since 800 BC, people of Africa especially Ethiopia already enjoyed coffee; they mix coffee seeds with wine and animal fats to fulfill their protein and energy for the body.  From Ethiopia, hundreds years after enjoyed by Ethiopian then bring to Arab, Arab peoples then proceed coffee seeds better than the Africans proceed. They not only cooked the seeds, but also then take the quintessence of coffee, used it as the raw of a kind of drink as now we recognized it as Coffee Drinks.  From the land of Arabic, coffee drinks popularity then spread into Northern Africa, Mediterranean, and India. Althought, there is no Coffee cultivation in Arab, but people of Arab is ones who render a service to promote coffee entire the world, of course included peoples of Ethiopia.

Coffee bring to Europe in 1615, comes to Europe via Turkey. The Dutch then bring coffee into South East Asia, especially Java Island and widely cultivated there on 1690 and become one of their main agro industries in their colonial land. On 1714, King Louis XIV from France receives Coffee Trees from The Dutch to fulfill Jardin des Plantes, their Botanical Garden in Paris.  Gabriel Mathieu di Clieu then bring the seed of coffee to Martinique, in Martinique, France, coffee plant grows very well and they made a great succeed, 18 millions of coffee tree grows for only first 50 years of cultivation. From the Europe then coffee spread out entire the world especially on their colonial territories.

Characteristic of the tree:
Coffee plant grows well at low up to middle land 600-2000 above sea level, temperature range 18 – 26 C. Coffee fruit need quite long time to be ready to consume, from flower period to ready for harvest need about 9 – 11 months depending on grows condition and variety of plant. Coffee tress has many branches, commonly the fruit grown on the branches, has a taproot, hard wood and green leaves.

The plant starting to produce at 2 up to 3 year age, depending on quality of cultivation applied.

Coffee plant needs high oxygen so the root grows shallow, near the surface of the ground. This condition is to support their daily oxygen absorption process. Generally, deepest roots of the coffee tree will only reach 30 cm of the soil surface. Coffee shows dimorphism in vegetative growth: growth Orthotropic (upright) and growth plagiotropic (laterally).

The part of plant that grows Orthotropic can result in the growth of Orthotropic and Plagiotropic. However,  the  Plagiotropic part could only produce the growth Plagiotropic and cannot produce Orthotropic. Therefore, the connection branches or branch cuttings cannot grow upward, but usually continue to grow laterally.

The coffee leaves grow opposite and in pairs, either growing on branches and trunks. In the branches, the leaves in pairs and is located in one area. However, on the trunk and sub stem, leaf pairs are not located in one area. Pairs of leaves will lie in one plane. Pairs of leaves will lie in intersecting areas. Then that should also be known, leaf stomata or mouth is varies according to the type of coffee. The coffee leaf will be wide, thin, and flabby when the light intensity is too little. Coffee tree leaf color is green to dark green.

The Fruit:
The coffee tree flowers growing in the armpits leaves on a branch, at each armpit there will be 4-5 bunches. To that end each of which will consist of 3 to 5 flowers.  Up and thus each armpit will be formed between 12 to 25 flowers, or let's say 24 to 50 flowers per group. The flowers have a distinctive scent, green fruit when young, and old red when ready to harvest.

For Arabica coffee, in general, the number of stems will be less so the number of fruit per group is smaller when compared to other types of Robusta coffee. At optimal conditions, the amount of interest it can reach more than 6000 to 8000 per tree. However,  the flowers that grows into ripe fruit usually ranges between 30 to 50 percent.

Crown of the flowers is white, with a number of crowns that vary depending on the type of coffee:
  • Arabica coffee has 5 petals.
  • Robusta coffee has 308 petals.

As well as the stigma stalk length, this was according to the type of coffee.
  •  Arabica coffee has a pistil stem length is shorter when compared with the stamens;
  •  Robusta coffee has a long stalk pistil longer when compared with the stamens.

Then pollination of each type is also different:
  • Arabica coffee, self-pollinated / Self-Pollinator;
  • Robusta coffee, cross-pollinated / Cross pollinator.

Pollination on coffee plants is usually carried by the wind. Pollination can be up to 100 meters from the tree itself, but actually, the most good is brought within 35 feet of the tree itself. In general, the coffee plant will put out flowers at the age of 3 years, and then later at the age of 4 years are just beginning to bear fruit,  the ovary is located below and contains two ovule. 

Economic potential: 
At least 2.25 billion cups coffee consumed daily worldwide, and keep on growing daily in line with world population growing.  Brazil is the highest producer of coffee beans they produced 2.44 million metric tons in 2009, followed by Vietnam 1.18, Columbia 0.89, Indonesia 0.70, and India 0.29.  Coffee even though can grow in non-tropic area but in fact, they growing and producing better in tropic area. 

The world already has an organization that manage all everything about worldwide coffee trade monitoring, this show us that coffee is one of important agro merchandize of the world.  Coffee bean prize is standing on growing time by time. 

With global crazy consumption and limited area for maximize production, so what you think?  Is there a good prospect in trading and coffee plantation investment? 

Scientific classification:
  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Asteridae
  •                           Order: Rubiales
  •                               Family: Rubiaceae (coffee matters tribes)
  •                                   Genus: Coffea
  •                                       Species: Coffea arabica L.
  •                                                     Coffea canephora Pierre ex Froehner

Monday, 29 July 2013

Jengkol, Jering or Dogfruit (Archidendron pauciflorum)

Jering or Jengkol or Dogfruit (Archidendron pauciflorum, synonyms: A. jiringa, Pithecellobium jiringa, and P. lobatum) is a typical plant in the Southeast Asian region. Seeds are popular in Malaysia, Thailand, and Indonesia as a food ingredient. Jengkol including the tribe of legumes (Fabaceae). The fruit is a pod, flattened shape convoluted form a spiral, dark violet color. Epidermis thin-skinned fruit seeds with shiny brown color. Jengkol can cause odor in urine after consumed. 

Jengkol known to prevent diabetes and is a diuretic and good for heart health. Jengkol plants also have the ability to absorb high groundwater, making it useful in water conservation.

One thing that "strange" is that although Jengkol when consumed will cause performance problems: bad breath, the smell of urine and body odor, but Jengkol in Indonesia and Malaysia including one of the very popular fruit and has a high economic value.

Characteristics of the tree:
Jengkol tree (Jering) can reach 10-26 meters, classified hardwood, and wood-skinned gray-brown. Jengkol is a typical plant of Southeast Asia, upright, rounded woody, and sleek.

This tropical plant has a fruit which is actually a seed, or the pods of the actual fruit. Each pod contained approximately 5-7 pieces. Jengkol trees can be grown from seed or by grafting. Jengkol plants grown by seeds or seedlings will begin to bear fruit when it is five years old or more. If Jengkol tree growing through the graft, the fruiting period will be much shorter. The leaves are green, elongated oval-shaped with a slightly pointed tip, lighter-colored veins. Has a taproot, and able to withstand large amounts of ground water.

One other characteristic of this tree is the tops of the leaves in the form of young leaves have a purple red color. The leaf color will turn greenish when old.  Generally grows wild, leafy tree, so that it fits into the tree shade.

The Fruit:
Jengkol including the tribe of legumes (Fabaceae), the form of  fruit is a pod and flat, twist and spiral-shaped, the outer skin is black, thick and hard enough, when young the color of the epidermis is pale yellow near to ivory and turn brown when old.  Meat that actually is a fruit seed, bright yellow like the color of ivory. Jengkol fruit is usually eaten raw when young, or consumed a variety of dishes for the old . The more old fruit, the more pungent smell. Flesh (seeds) will be hardened when old, so it requires special handling before consumption.

Behind the odor problem, this fruit is contained useful benefits for health.  According to various studies  noted that Jengkol also rich in carbohydrates, protein, vitamin A, vitamin C, phosphorus, calcium, alkaloids, essential oils, steroids, glycosides, tannins, and saponins.

Nutritional composition per 100 grams:
Substance Nutrition Levels : Energy (kcal) 133, Protein (g) 23.3, Carbohydrates (g) 20.7, Vitamin A (SI) 240, Vitamin B (mg) 0.7, Vitamin C (mg) 80, Phosphorus (mg) 166.7, Calcium (mg) 140, Iron (mg) 4.7, Water (g) 49.5.

However, noted also that Jengkol contains a substance named Jengkolat Acid  that can cause problems on the human urine network when over consumed. 

Economic potential:
Jengkol currently not yet a favorite food for the people of the world, only a few people outside the Southeast  Asia region who've try to taste this fruit. B ut today Jengkol prices continue to soar, especially in Indonesia in line with market demand and a decline in land cultivation.

More than 50% of Indonesia's population which has a total population of over 240 million people are a fan of this very pungent smelling fruit type,  a wide variety of foods can be made from this fruit. Either as a primary or supplemental material.  But not only Indonesia, jengkol fans also come from other Southeast Asian countries. 

As a side note, this is the number come from  the Central Statistics Bureau Indonesia on Jengkol production and land area for the past several years: 6,943 Ha (2010), 7,907 Ha (2011), and 7,163 Ha (2012). Sedangakn for production quantities jengkol reached 80 008 tons in 2008 and then decreased again to 62 475 tons (2009), 50 235 tons (2010), 65 830 tons (2011), and 61 537 tons (2012).

As of this writing, the problem of rising commodity prices is being highlighted because of extraordinary price rising. So what do you think? An economic potential?

Scientific classification:

  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Rosidae
  •                           Order: Fabales
  •                               Family: Mimosaceae
  •                                   Genus: Archidendron
  •                                       Species: Archidendron pauciflorum




Soursop (Annona muricata L.)

Soursop (Annona muricata L.) is a useful plant origin of the Caribbean, Central America and South America. But known that Graviola has also been long recognized in Africa, especially in Somalia, Mozambique and Uganda. Currently the plant has also been a part of the "traditional" plant in some Southeast Asian countries such as Malaysia, Philippines and Indonesia. Utilization was already happening in a broad scope ranging from fruit to leaves, fruit utilized as a food ingredient and the leaves used as part of herbal medicine.

This plant can be grown in any place especially in tropical lands, but the best is if planted in an area that is quite watery.

Soursop fruit is not true, because the so-called "fruit" is actually a collection of the fruits (fruit aggregate) with a single seed and losing limits coincide between pieces. Soursop size is large enough, can reach up to 20-30cm long and weigh up to 2.5 kg. Soursop fruit flesh is white and has black seeds. The fruit is often used as raw material for juice drinks and ice cream, but can also be consumed directly. The flesh is soft, juicy and have a mix between sweet, sour and fresh. 

Tree characteristics:
Soursop tree trunk has a low branching, tree height between 3 to 8 feet.  The bark is brown to blackish brown, the wood including hard wood class.  Elongated leaves with lanceolate or obovate, the color of leaves is dark green. The flowers stand alone dealing with leaves. Cone-like flower shape, flower color is light yellow. Flower base concave, stamens quite a lot, so does the embryo fruit. Soursop can plant seeds to use, can also be by way of a patch or grafting. Fruiting season is in January and February each year.

Soursop requires a period of growth to establish tree canopy foliage for about 2 years. The transition from infancy to fruition requires a period of time of approximately 1 year.

Fruit trees established before age 3 years, usually fall out, especially when having water shortages during the dry season.

Not many varieties Soursop recognized, so far there are 4 varieties namely: guanaba Azucaron (sweet), guanaba acida (very sour), guanabana dulce (sweet soursop) and guanabana sin fiber (fiber less).

The Fruit:
Soursop fruit has a true form of multiple (aggregate fruit) is a fruit that comes from a flower with many ovaries but form one fruit, the fruit has thorns fine scales. Flesh white flesh, soft, and fibrous with many seeds blackish brown.

Tend to fixed colored skin of fruit from young to old, from light green to dark green. soft outer skin, has a tapered section that is prevalent but also soft taper.

Soursop fruit seeds somewhat blackish brown and hard, blunt-ended, smooth shiny surface with a size of about 16.8 mm and a width of 9.6 mm, number of seeds in the fruit varied between 20-70 grains.

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz):
Energy 276 kJ (66 kcal), Carbohydrates 16.84 g,  Sugars 13.54 g, Dietary fiber 3.3 g, Fat 0.3g, Protein 1 g, Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.07 mg (6%), Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.05 mg (4%), Niacin (vit. B3) 0.9 mg (6%), Pantothenic acid (B5) 0.253 mg (5%), Vitamin B6 0.059 mg (5%), Folate (vit. B9) 14 μg (4%), Choline 7.6 mg (2%), Vitamin C 20.6 mg (25%), Calcium 14 mg (1%), Iron 0.6 mg (5%), Magnesium 21 mg (6%), Phosphorus 27 mg (4%), Potassium 278 mg (6%), Sodium 14 mg (1%), Zinc 0.1 mg (1%).
Source : USDA Database entry

Economic potential:
Globally, the fruit is already quite recognized, enjoyed by the public as fresh fruit, juice and a variety of other processed foods. This fruit prices also have a tendency to continue to improve. This fruit although it is still a matter of controversy, trusted by many people as an herbal alternative for the cure of cancer, you could check yourself regarding Soursop against Cancer online.

Regardless of the controversy, this fruit is a fruit that have fresh taste and "open" for being processed material to various food products. In Southeast Asia, countries are often found soursop based processed food products, for example, there is food in Indonesia named “Dodol Soursop,” a kind of porridge sweet snacks that made from soursop, sugar and other ingredients. You can also found various other foods made of Soursop spreading in each Southeast Asia Region.

Please don’t forget that this fruit also contain 25% of Vitamin C in each 100 g of flesh  that needed by our body daily, this fruit is one of the riches Vit. C. 

The plant of this fruit only good to be cultivated in tropical area, simple handling, and short period needed from first tree planting to fruiting period, although only cultivated on tropical land but this fruit needed globally. There is no such as plantation in industry scale for this fruit plant. 

Scientific classification:

  • Kingdom: Plantae
  • Division: Spermatophyta
  • Sub division: Angiospermae
  • Class: Magnoliopsida
  • Sub class: Magnoliidae
  • Order: Magnoliales
  • Family: Annonaceae
  • Genus: Annona
  • Species: Annona muricata L.


Sunday, 28 July 2013

Snap Bean or Green Bean or France Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

Snap Bean or Green Bean or France Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is a vegetable fruit including Leguminosae family, originally from Central America and South America.  This plant is more suitable to be cultivated in the medium and highland plateau. Bean plants can be divided into two types namely vine type (indeterminate nature) and upright type (shrub-shaped and determinate nature).  The vines type have more branches; have a lot more flowers anyway, so it has the potential for greater returns. This type can reach 3 feet in length and easy to fall down, so it takes a trellis / stake in order to grow well. 

The  upright type generally short with no more than 60 high cm.

This nut is known throughout the world and is one of the raw materials of various types of popular processed foods.  Snap Bean are generally harvested when the fruit is still young. There are a lot of soup recipe that include Snap Beans as part of the raw material.  Although physically beans are fruits, but when it is used more commonly referred  as a vegetable.

Saturday, 27 July 2013

Sapodilla (Manilkara zapota)

Sapodilla (Manilkara zapota) is a very popular fruit in Southeast Asia. This region is a major producer and consumer of this fruit. Sapodilla preferred mainly because it tastes sweet and soft flesh. This plant is thought to originate from tropical America-such as Guatemala, Mexico, and the West Indies-and in Java, this plant can be found in the lowlands. The Spanish colonizers brought from Mexico to the Philippines, and the possibility of it spreading to Southeast Asia.

Sapodilla has now grown in many tropical regions of the world. Brown manila germplasm collections are in Los Banos (Philippines), Queensland (Australia), India, Cuba, Brazil, Costa Rica, Florida and Hawaii (USA) and several other countries.

Most sapodilla fruit eaten fresh as a table fruit.  However, sapodilla can also be processed into sherbet, mixed into ice cream, or used as jam. Sapodilla fruit juice can be concentrated into syrup, or fermented into wine or vinegar. The sap can be used as glue or varnish.

Aubergine or eggplant or Solanum melongena

Aubergine or eggplant  is a plant belonging to the family of Solanaceae and genus Solanum. This plant is a native of India and Sri Lanka, and is closely related to tomatoes and potatoes. The fruit commonly used as a vegetable for cooking and has botanical name Solanum melongena.

Eggplant is a vegetable that is well known by most people, especially in the tropics regions. The fruit is composed of various types, but majority of them has two kinds of color, which is light green and purple. Eggplant can be enjoyed straight or other cooking materials. The fruit trees also have so many kinds of varieties.

Plant characteristics:
Eggplant is a green plant that generally cultivated annually especially in dry session.  This plant can grows about 40-150 cm (16-57 inches) in height. The leaves are large, with a rough lobe. The size is 10-20 cm (4-8 inches) long and 5-10 cm (2-4 inches) in width. The types of semi-wild bigger and grow to as high as 225 cm (7 feet), with leaves that exceed 30 cm (12 inches) and 15 cm (6 inches) in length. The trunk is usually spiked. Flower color between white to purple, with a crown that has five lobes.  Fruit contains flour, with a diameter of less than 3 cm in the wild, and even greater for the preferred species.

Friday, 26 July 2013

Pomegranate (Punica granatum)

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is a fruit crop that believed come from and Persia or Iran now origin. However, has been known since a long time in the Mediterranean.  Now well known and popular in South China and Southeast Asia.

Description of tree:
This tree is in the category of high herbaceous plant with between 2-8 m, woody, round, branched, spiny; tree bark turns dark brown after a brownish green. This leaves a single, lanceolate, flat edge, pointed, 1-8 cm long, and 5-15m width, surface shiny and green. Single flower, growing on the ends of branches, short flower stalks, petals attaches, red or pale yellow. Crown rounded, curved flower stalk, yellow, white pistil, red or yellow.

The pomegranate can be grown in lowland tropics and sub-tropics to a height of 1500 m above sea level,  better in the clay and the long dry season and summer. Currently in Southeast Asia in particular has become a garden or yard plants. Pomegranate plants rooted riding, yellow to brownish, tuberous root with yellow to brownish color.

Sugar apple (Annona squamosa)

Sugar apple (Annona squamosa), is a plant belonging to the genus Annona and shrub. This tree comes
from tropical areas of America and now widely grown in Colombia, El Salvador, India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and the Philippines.

Sugar-apple fruit is round with a lot of cutting edge skin (like soursop). The flesh is white.

Including semi-green perennial shrubs or deciduous tree reaching 8 m in height,  intermittent leaves, simple, javelin longitudinal, 7-12 cm in length, and width of 3-4 cm. The flowers appear in bunches of 3-4, each flower 2-3 cm wide, with six petals, yellow-green spotted purple at the base.

The fruit is usually round or cone-like evergreen, 6-10 cm diameter, with skin bumps and flaky, white flesh.

Thursday, 25 July 2013

Guava (Psidium guajava)


Guava (Psidium guajava), is a tropical plant from Brazil, which then spread to many other tropical countries, and became a popular fruit in there. Has a green rind when young and turn yellow when ripe and have white or red meat fruit and sweet-sour taste, Guava contain a lot of vitamin C.

Guava leaves contain tannins, eugenol (essential oils), fatty oil, resin, tannin substances, triterpinoid, apfel acid. While fruit contains amino acids (tryptophan, lysine), calcium, phosphorus, iron, sulfur, vitamin A, B1, and C, however, guava leaf not common to consume and only used as part of herbal medicine.

These plants include Myrtaceae family, grown in the lowlands to the highlands 1,200 meters above sea level; in loose soil to clay soils, especially in open areas and plenty of water.

Tuesday, 23 July 2013

Palm Fruit (For Palm Oil)

Palm Oil - Fruit (Elaeis) or called Kelapa Sawit in Malaysia and Indonesia, today is an important part of the horticulture industry of Southeast Asia; Malaysia and Indonesia are the two largest countries in the world producing this product. Although there are, concerns over the impact of tropical deforestation that converted into large-scale plantations palm oil.

Plant characteristics:
Palm Oil is one of the large palm families, as well as other type of palm oil palm has root fibers, pinnate compound leaves composed and colored green. Native plant oil palm can reach a height of 25m, the former plant stems covered with bark and the tree will last until the age of approximately 12 years. After reaching the age of the stem will flake shaped like palm trees so.

Monday, 22 July 2013

Durian



Durian is a kind of very popular fruit in the countries of Southeast Asia. A tropical fruit that have tough skin and sharp, has a pungent and distinctive aroma, this fruit is an origin of the region and growth in countries like Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Thailand, and the Philippines.

In this region, the typical Durian even earned the nickname as the "King of Fruits.” However, there is also mention that the real durian is a  "controversial” fruit , because that as well as many of his ardent fans durian was also rejected by many others because of its aroma.

Characteristics of the tree:
Durian is not a single species, but a group of plants with the genus Durio.  In botany usually called Durio zibethinus.

Durian fruit tree merukan hardwood tree species, high growth between 25-50 m, depending on the species. Durian trees often have buttress root (root board). Pepagan (bark) reddish brown, peeling irregular. Leafy canopy and tenuous.

Leaves elliptic to lancet, 10-15 (-17) cm × 3 to 4.5 (-12.5) cm; located alternate; stemmed; stem taper or ramp blunt and pointy toes; bright green upper side, lower side covered by scales silvery or golden star with feathers.

Sunday, 21 July 2013

Mango (Mangifera indica)

Mango (Mangifera indica) is one kind of tropical fruit that goes into the genus Mangifera that consists of about 40 members and Anarcardiaceae tribal.

Mango trees including higher plants the stem structure (habitus) group included arboreus, woody plants with stem height of more than 5m. Generally, the tree height can reach 10-40m.

Naming mango comes from the Malayalam language, in Kerala, India. Spread to Europe and the rest of the world after brought by the Portuguese.

Believed the fruit came from the border of India and Myanmar, and has spread since about 1500 years ago.

Wednesday, 17 July 2013

Papaya (Carica Papaya)

Papayas (Carica Papaya) are part of tropical fruits, the regions of the world in roomates they are grown. Botanists commonly agreed that this fruit is a Central America origin, particularly Mexico. In Mexico, the cultivation of papaya believed to be first performed.

Papaya then spread and become famous globally and now cultivated in many tropical regions, both Central America and Asia. 

Papaya has skin generally green to dark green fruit when young, and then turns yellow to blush at the old and mature. Content of the fruit is usually dark orange to red, has a high water content, soft ripe fruit and sweet.

Ananas (Pineapple) - Ananas Comosus Merr

Ananas also called as Pineapple and botanically named as Ananas comosus Merr is a kind of thick and rough-skinned fruit, but the fruit has a soft texture and watery inside.

Some sources say that the fruit came from Brazil and Paraguay, but now spread throughout Latin America, South Asia, South East Asia, Africa, and Australia. Currently there are over 2000 pineapple species identified worldwide.

According to UN-FAO the biggest pineapple product now come from South Asia Countries; the Philippines, Thailand and Indonesia, the second region contributor come from Latin America; Costa Rica, Chile and Brazil.

Pineapples are a composite of many flowers whose individual fruitless fuse together around a central core. Each fruit let can be identified by an "eye," the rough spiny marking on the pineapple's surface. Pineapples have a wide cylindrical shape, a scaly green, brown, or yellow skin, and a regal crown of spiny, blue-green leaves and fibrous yellow flesh. The area closer to the base of the fruit has more sugar content and therefore a sweeter taste and more tender texture.