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Monday, 22 July 2013

Durian



Durian is a kind of very popular fruit in the countries of Southeast Asia. A tropical fruit that have tough skin and sharp, has a pungent and distinctive aroma, this fruit is an origin of the region and growth in countries like Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, Thailand, and the Philippines.

In this region, the typical Durian even earned the nickname as the "King of Fruits.” However, there is also mention that the real durian is a  "controversial” fruit , because that as well as many of his ardent fans durian was also rejected by many others because of its aroma.

Characteristics of the tree:
Durian is not a single species, but a group of plants with the genus Durio.  In botany usually called Durio zibethinus.

Durian fruit tree merukan hardwood tree species, high growth between 25-50 m, depending on the species. Durian trees often have buttress root (root board). Pepagan (bark) reddish brown, peeling irregular. Leafy canopy and tenuous.

Leaves elliptic to lancet, 10-15 (-17) cm × 3 to 4.5 (-12.5) cm; located alternate; stemmed; stem taper or ramp blunt and pointy toes; bright green upper side, lower side covered by scales silvery or golden star with feathers.

The Fruit:
The flower (also the fruit) emerged directly from the stem (cauliflorous) or old branches at the base (proximal), grouped in essay contains 3-10 florets panicle-shaped skein or flat. Flower buds rounded, about 2 cm in diameter, long-stemmed. Flower petals along the tube shape about 3 cm, leaf sheath split into 2-3 lobes additional round eggs. Crown shape spatula, approximately 2 × length of petals, amounting to 5 strands, whitish. Stamens many, divided into 5 files; stigma head hump shape, with a hairy stem.  Flowers appear from dormant buds, blooms in late afternoon and last up to several days. Flowers close during the day. The flowers spread fragrance derived from the nectar glands at the base to attract bats as primary pollinators. Studies in Malaysia in the 1970s showed that pollinators are bats Eonycteris spelaea durian. Further  study 1996 showed that other animals, such as birds and bees honey Nectariniidae participate in the pollination of  three other durian relatives. Durian flowers, straight out of the trunk / branches in groups.

Type of durian fruit capsules are round, generally oval but also round available, with a length up to 25 cm and a diameter up to 20 cm.  His skin thick, sharply angled surface ("spiked = duri in Malaysia and Indonesia", because it is called "durian", although this is not a thorn in botanical sense), yellowish green, brownish, greyish up.

The fruit develops after fertilization and requires 4-6 months for ripening. At the time of ripening occurs  “competition” between the fruits in the group, so that only one or a few pieces that will reach maturity, and the rest fall. The fruit will fall over themselves when ripe. In general heavy durian fruit can reach 1.5 to 5 pounds, so that durian orchard into a dangerous area during durian season.  If it fell on someone's head, durian fruit can cause severe injury or even death.

Each fruit has five rooms, which indicates the number of leaf pieces owned. Each room occupied by a few seeds, usually three or more items, tapering to 4 inches long, brownish pink and shiny. Seeds encased by arilus (coated seeds, commonly referred to as "meat fruit" durian) white to bright yellow with varying thickness, but the thickness arilus superior cultivars may reach 3 cm. Seeds with seeds coated in the trade is called ponggè. Breeding durian directed to produce a small seed with a thick-coated seeds, coated seeds because this is the edible part. Some varieties produce fruit with seeds that are not growing, but the thick-coated seeds.

Diversity and variety:
Durian is very diverse. For the record in Indonesia alone, there were 20 species of Durio members (from nearly 30's type), nine of which are edible. Durian is right also has a lot of variety. Research institutes in Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand have released various superior durian cultivars,  there are also various well-known local races that already become favorites in the region.

Nutrient content per 100 g ( Source : USDA National Nutrient data base); 
Energi  147 Kcal (7%), Carbohydrates 27.09 g (21%), Protein 1.47g (2,5%), Total Fat 5.33g (30%), Dietary Fiber 3.8g (10%), Folates 36 mcg (9%), Niacin 1,074 mg, Pantothenic acid 0.230 mg (4,5%), Pyridoxane 0,316 mg, Ribloflamin 0.200mg, Thiamin 0,374, Vitamin A 44 IU, Vitamin C 19.7mg. Potassium 436 mg, Calcium 6mg, Copper 0.207mg, Iron 0.43mg, Magnesium 30mg, Manganese 0.325 mg,  Phosphorus 39mg and Zinc 0.28 mg.

Economic potential:
Durian in the South East Asia region is a favorite fruit and relatively expensive and valuable, so in the region cultivation efforts have been made seriously. Durian fruit can be enjoyed directly and become part of the local culinary delights, ranging from sweets, drinks, and ice, until the bread soggy and other table dishes. Global durian fruit may not be as famous or mango mangosteen, but the economic potential of this fruit is increasing due to the increase in population and purchasing power, particularly in Southeast Asia today. 

Identification :
  1. Name            : Durian
  2. Genus           : Durio   
  3. Family          : Malvaceae
  4. Total species : 30 species recognized
  5. Native           : Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei
Others :
  1. Major exporters                       : Thailand
  2. Availability                               : Sessional
  3. Culinary                                   : Durian used as raw of candy, ice cream, milkshakes, and various others traditional food and beverages in South East Asia region.
  4. Type of fruit                              : Tropical 
  5. The most commercial species : Commercially, durian Monthong is the most popular and has highest economic value. Monthong is a sub species developed by Thai farmers. Monthong Durian fruit has a thick flesh, more fragrant and sweet.