Follow my blog with Bloglovin Worldwide Fruits List: 2012

Sunday, 30 December 2012

Star Fruit

Star fruit or Carambola (Averrhoa carambola) is a local fruit famous in Southeast Asia region, south pacific and eastern parts of Asia. The fruit is generally shaped pentagon, this is could probably the reason why it is called star fruit.

Scientific classification:
  • Kingdom    : Plantae
  • Division     : Magnoliophyta
  • Class          : Magnoliopsida
  • Order          : Oxalidales
  • Family       : Oxalidaceae
  • Genus        : Averrhoa
  • Species      : A. carambola

Wednesday, 26 December 2012

Jackfruit

Jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is another kind of tropical fruit that native to South and Southeast Asia. Outer fruit skin, pointy-pointy-shaped, green, with white flesh when young, then turns into yellow when ripe.

This tree is widely cultivated in tropical regions of India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines. Jackfruit is also found in East Africa (Uganda, Tanzania and Mauritius) as well as throughout Brazil and Caribbean nations such as Jamaica. In a tropical area like Southeast Asia region, the tree can be found from low land until 1,300 above sea level.  This fruit can be found anytime, because jackfruit is not a seasonal fruit.

Jackfruit is very sweet and tasty, when the jackfruit opened, you will find the bright yellow pods (when ripe) which can be eaten raw or cooked. When unripe its flesh is green, and it can be made into various delicious vegetable dishes.

Sunday, 23 December 2012

Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata sesquipedalisis)



Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata sesquipedalisis) a plant used as a vegetable or vegetable dish. He grew up with by climbing or twining. Yardlong beans are used as vegetables or fresh fruit when it is still young and the fibers are soft, long beans are easily found in the tropical territory of Asia. Especially in South East Asia Region.

Yardlong Bean (Vigna unguiculata sesquipedalisis is known as dau gok in Cantonese, jiang dou (豇豆) in Standard Mandarin, Thua Fak yao (ถั่วฝักยาว) in Thailand and Kacang Panjang in Indonesia and Malay, Sitaw in Tagalog, Ilokano utong in Bora in the West Indies and vali, Borboti in Bengali, India, eeril in Goa, India or đậu đũa (Vietnamese, literally: chopstick bean).


Petai or Bitter Bean

Petai or Parkia Speciosa or Bitter Bean or Stink  Bean, is a type of fruit that becomes an important source dishes in Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Laos, Southern Thailand , Burma and Northern India. The seeds, also called "Petai,” consumed when young, either fresh or boiled.  Petai beans, a characteristic odor and pungent, eaten fresh or used as ingredients mixed menus.  They are best when combined with other strongly flavored foods such as garlic, chili peppers, dried shrimp, or shrimp paste, as in sambal Petai.

Petai trees height can reach 20m and less branched. The leaves are compound, composed of parallel. Compound interest, arranged in head (typical Mimosoidae). Flowers appear usually near the end of the branch. The fruit is large, elongated, pods type. From one head can be found up to a dozen pieces. In one piece there are up to 20 seeds, which are green when young and wrapped by a membrane rather thick, light brown color. Petai will dry out if ripen and release the seeds.

Saturday, 22 December 2012

Pare (Bitter Lemon)

Pare (Momordica charantia) or Bitter Melon is a vine and Asia tropical origin, especially the western India, namely Assam and Burma. Tribesmen pumpkin or Cucurbitaceous  commonly cultivated for use as a vegetable and a medicinal.In East Asian countries, such as Japan, Korea, and China, bitter melon is used for the medical treatment, among others, as a cure indigestion, pep drinks, laxatives and vomiting, and even has been extracted and packaged in capsules as herbal medicine.
While in Indonesia, bitter melon is very popular and become part of the basic materials for variety of culinary dishes. Pare though has bitter taste, treated more as a vegetable than a fruit.

Characteristics of the tree:  
Bitter lemon is a type of vine, with long fruit shape and tapered at the ends, and jagged surface. Bitter lemon grows well in the lowlands, but can be found growing wild in wastelands, dry land, cultivated, or planted in the garden with propagated in the fence, these plants grow vines or climbing the spiral tendrils, much branched, smells bad and ribbed stems. Single leaf, stemmed and located alternate, elliptic, with a length of 3.5 to 8.5 cm, width 4 cm, sharing a 5-7, heart shaped base and dark green. Flowers are single flower, androgynous in a tree, long-stemmed, yellow crown.

This plant has a high adaptability, able to adapt to different climates. Can grow well in high rainfall, grows throughout the year and not depending on the season. Requires a good drainage. Require loose soil and contains a lot of organic matter. Requires a soil pH between 5-6.  Height between 1 meter to 1500 meters above sea level.

Fruit begins to grow after 1.5 months of age, the fruit can be picked a month later, because commonly  bitter lemon is used as a vegetable  so the fruit will be picked while still young. This tree will continue to produce until the age of 5 months, the harvest will be repeated in intervals of 6-7 days.

The Fruit:
Bitter lemon contains Albiminoid, carbohydrates and dyes leaves contain bitter substances, fatty oils, resins
acids, protein, iron, calcium, phosphorus, vitamin A, B1 and C. Generally the fruit is dark green, light green and pale green,  depending on the type of varieties and growing locations. Elongated fruit form is almost round like a cucumber, but the outer skin is not smooth, but wrinkled and slightly tapered. It poses the fruit flesh is white when young and when old reddish orange with a lot of seeds. Part of the fruit that consumed by people is the outer skin, this part, when young will be used as vegetable.

Food value:
In accordance with the USDA National Nutrient data base pare every 100 grams contains: Energy 79 kJ (19 kcal), Carbohydrate 4.32 g, Fat 0.18 g, Protein 0.84 g, Water 93.95 g,V itamin A equiv. 6 mg, Thiamine (Vit. B1) 0051mg, Riboflavin (Vit. B2) 0053mg, Niacin (Vit. B3) 0280 mg, 0041 mg Vitamin B6, Folate (Vit. B9) 51 mg, Vitamin C 33.0 mg, 0:14 mg Vitamin E, Vitamin K 4.8 mcg, Calcium 9 mg, 0:38 Iron mg, Magnesium 16 mg, Phosphorus 36 mg, Potassium 319 mg, Sodium 6 mg and Zinc 0.77 mg

Scientific classification:
  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (Dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Dilleniidae
  •                           Order: Violales
  •                               Family: Cucurbitaceae
  •                                   Genus: Momordica
  •                                       Species: Momordica charantia L


Salak (Salacca zalacca)

Salak (Salacca zalacca) also named as Snake fruit is a tropical fruit native of Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei. Salak is a kind of palm tree (family Arecaceae) with fruit that can be eaten without any further process. Salak is a kind of palm-shaped shrubs or barely trunked, prickly, growing into dense clumps and strong.

It is a very short-stemmed palm, with leaves up to 6 metres (20 ft) long; each leaf has a 2-metre long petiole with spines up to 15 centimeters (5.9 in) long, and numerous leaflets.

Friday, 21 December 2012

Lansium domesticum ( Duku - Indonesia, Malay, Burmese)

Duku (Lansium domesticum) is a type of tropical fruit that grow primarily in Southeast Asia region. In Indonesia, Malaysia and Burma this fruits have the same name. Duku is a popular fruit and a favorite in the subcontinent. Sweet taste with a lot of water content is a perfect blend to be enjoyed in tropical climates that tend to heat. Duku fruit, relatively inexpensive and easily found everywhere, especially at harvest time.

Thursday, 20 December 2012

Melinjo ( Gnetum gnemon )

Melinjo ( Gnetum gnemon ) is native to Indonesia,Topical Asia, Melanesia and West Pasific. The color of the skin is deep red color when ripegreen when the fruit young, then becomes yellow before turning to red. It is widely used in Indonesian cuisine. In Indonesia the young seeds are used for sayur asem (sour vegetables soup) and also, ground into flour and deep-fried as crackers (emping, a type of cracker). The crackers have a slightly bitter taste and are frequently served as a snack or accompaniment to Indonesian dishes, the leaves are also commonly used for vegetables dishes. 

Common names include melinjo or belinjo (Indonesian), bago (Malay, Tagalog), muling (Acehnese) peesae (Pattani Malay), dae (Kwara'ae), phakmiang (Thai) and bét, rau bép, rau danh or gắm (Vietnamese). They are sometimes called padi oats or paddy oats.

Characteristic of the tree:
Melinjo is a tropical plant, can grow well on various types of soil, though less fertile. Melinjo can grow to a height of 1200 m above sea level but the maximum output is achieved when grow on location that height no more than 400 m above sea level.

Melinjo trees are hardwood trees and can grow up to a height of approximately 15m. Melinjo trees are hardwood trees and can grow up to a height of approximately 15m. Woody round, and has a flat surface (laevis), gray-colored bark. Branching tree is simpodial and the root of Gnetum Gnemon tree classified to the taproot (radix Primaria), the roots digging deep into the ground.

Leaves of Gnetum gnemon is a single leaf, consisting of the petiole (petiolus) and the leaf blade (lamina). The leaf blade shape is oblongus, while leaf tips is acuminatus, leaf margins integer, and pinnate leaves (penninervis). Leaves position is opposite (folia opposita) without stipules.

Dioecus unisex flowers, found on grains in dichasium branching. Located on the armpit leaves (axillary), there brachtea on each bouquet. Male flowers consist of stamens, which is topped with a line of sterile ovulum. Female flowers are in a bouquet grain, with the partially fertile ovulum, wrapped by a fleshy perigonium.

The Fruit:
The seeds are not encased by the meat, but only wrapped outer skin, the outer skin color is green when young, becomes yellow when old and change to red when the seed is ripe. There is still a shell that protects the seeds fruit seeds, the seed shell old ivory when young and become brown when ripe, seed shells is harder (horn skin) but  thinner than the outer skin, the shape of the fruit is oval.

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Calcium (mg)163
Calories (cal)66
Carbohydrate (g)13.3
Fat (g)0.7
Iron (mg)2.8
Phosphorus (mg)75
Protein (g)5
Vitamin A (S.I)1000
Vitamin B1 (mg)0.1
Vitamin C (mg)100
Water (g)80
Source: Directorate of Nutrition - Department of Health of the Republic of Indonesia


Use of Melinjo:
Fruit Melinjo cannot be used just after harvest. Need additional process to enjoy Melinjo. However Melinjo is one of the raw materials for various types of cuisine are very popular in Indonesia.

Emping Melinjo.
Emping is one savory dish that is very popular and has a high economic value. Emping is a kind of cracker made ​​from Melinjo, both made ​​by flour first, as well as directly to the ground after roasting it first.
Emping

Melinjo rind consists of two parts, the outer shell tends to soft, but the inside skin is hard. Good Emping made from high quality of Melinjo.

Emping ready to be enjoyed after being fried, can be enjoyed as a snack, or additional food for varieties of Indonesia culinary, like Soto or Bakso.

On a state visit to Indonesia in 2010, one of the dishes served at the banquet in honor of the state presented President Barack Obama is Emping, Emping are supposedly one of his childhood favorite snack.

Sayur Asem.
Sayur Asem is a very popular culinary folk in Indonesia. One of the main ingredients of Sayur Asem is Melinjo, young leaves Melinjo trees and mixed with corn, beans, peanuts, and a wide variety of other vegetables. Sayur Asem is a kind of soup using tamarind main seasoning, onion, garlic, brown sugar, and salt. The taste of Sayur Asem is sweet, sour, and slightly spicy, as in; certain areas of green chili are part of the kind of culinary.

Scientific classification:
  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Gnetophyta
  •                   Class: Gnetopsida
  •                       Order: Gnetales
  •                           Family: Gnetaceae
  •                               Genus: Gnetum
  •                                   Species: Gnetum gnemon


Wednesday, 19 December 2012

The Rambuatan

Rambuatan (Nephelium lappaceum), according to popular belief and the origin of its name, rambutan is native to Indonesia and Malaysia, the name rambutan is derived from the Indonesian/Malay word rambutan, meaning "hairy", rambut the word for "hair" in both languages, a reference to the numerous hairy protuberances of the fruit. But rambutan also can be found in elsewhere in Southeast Asia region like Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam and also in South Asia like India and Sri Lanka.

Rambutan fruit have the outer shell shaped to resemble hair. Generally  color of fruits are green when young, changed to yellow when the fruit is old, and then turn to red when the fruit is ripe. But in malaysia there are varieties of rambutan skin still yellow when ripe.

Tuesday, 18 December 2012

Mangosteen




Mangosteen (Garcinia Mangostana) is a fruit native from Southeast Asia, like Indonesia, Malaysia, and The Philippines as well as in South Asia such as Sri Lanka and India and also in South America like Columbia. Originally, Mangosteen is a plant that grows wild in the tropical rain forests, but now the farmers in this region have cultivated Mangosteen.