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Wednesday, 6 November 2013

Corn or Maize (Zea mays)

Corn or Zea mays or commonly referred to Maize is one of the most important sources of carbohydrates, especially in the western hemisphere. Known, maize has become a staple food of the people of Mexico and Latin America since prehistoric times. From Central America, the plant with the same name of the fruit is then grown to almost all tropical and sub-tropical regions around the world. Currently maize, become an important agricultural business from local, regional to multinational size of scope.

Characteristics of the tree:

Corn is a tropical grass plants are very adaptive to climate change and have a life span of 70-210 days. Corn can grow to a height of 3 meters. Unlike other grain crops, maize is a plant that flowers only males and females separately.

Maximum temperature of the corn crop and the start of the growth phase of development is 18-32 degrees Celsius. Beyond that maize can not be grown or even death. Corn can produce good yields on rainfall 300 mm per month. If less than 300 mm per month will result in damage to the maize crop, however, the factors of soil moisture also resulted in reduced yields.

Root: From an anatomical point of view, the roots of corn plants consisting of the epidermis, ground tissue, and endodermis that surrounding the vascular roots system, vascular system composed of xylem and phloem. The epidermis is composed of cells of elliptic and confrontation with two layers of hypodermis. Being morphologically maize root system consists of seminal roots, coronal, and aerial roots. 

The amount of the main outermost roots is between 20 - 30 pieces. Lateral roots that grow from the main root can reach hundreds with 2.5 to 25 cm long. Botanically maize plants including monocot, the main roots emerge and grow entered into the soil since the seed planted. Root growth slowed when the stems begin to arise out of land and then stop when the corn plant has 3 leaves.

Root growths then continued by growth of adventitious roots that develop in the first segment of maize crop. Adventitious roots are not growing from the radicle, then widened and thickened; the root is then played an important role as an enforcer of plants and absorbing nutrients. Adventitious roots were also found growing in the segment to two and three to the trunk, but its main function is not known with certainty.

Trunk: The trunk-shaped segments. In an old maize plant, the distance between sections will be lower. Stem segments can reach the number of 10-40, corn trunk generally unbranched, and trunk has two functions: as a place where the leaves grow and nutrient exchange. Nutrients carried by vessels called xylem and phloem. Phloem moving in either direction from top to bottom and from bottom to top, phloem is sucrose carrier to all parts of the plant in liquid form. Maize stem color is green, green to yellowish.

Leaf: Anatomy of the leaves of maize plants are relatively similar in characters to the grass that living in mild climate areas (mesophytic grass). Outermost epidermal tissue called the cuticle so that has to be rough. Epidermal tissue always outside, crystalline silica found in some types of leaves that come from different varieties. Crystalline silica is adjacent to the epidermal tissue, which serves as a binder. In the monocot plants such as maize, the leaves do not have the palisade tissue. Each vascular system surrounded by parenchyma tissue that hard but thin. Vascular system surrounded by bundle sheath. Corn is a C4 plant types, C4 plants have a large chloroplast cells and scattered rigidly. Chloroplasts located in the mesophyll leaf, which is located in the center of the leaf tissue.

Leaves are formed from the midrib and leaf (leaf blade and sheath). Leaves emerge from the stem segments, appears parallel to the leaf midrib stems. Leaf midrib brown colored covering almost all the corn stalks. In the early phase of growth, stem and leaves cannot be clearly distinguished. This is because the growing point is still below ground. New leaf can be distinguished by the stem when the leaves first 5 in the growth phase, emerge from the ground. New leaves will appear at the growing point. Growing point maize leaves on stem segments. Maize leaf numbering about 20 strands depending on the variety. In line with the growth of maize, stem diameter increases. Leaf color is green to yellowish green.

Flower, fruits, and seeds:

Flowers: Maize is monoecious plant in which every individual plant has male and female flowers. Male flowers lie at the growing point maize plants. When stalled growth phase, intact form of the female flowers will be obvious. Female flowers located in the center of the plant. Pollination occurs in the cornhusk, which will then develop into maize.

Male flowers found in flower panicles at the end of the plant, while the female flowers are found on maize cobs. Stigma stalk is frayed at the ends of hair that always cob wrapped in cornhusk whose numbers 6-14 strands. In the female flowers, there are a number of splitting hair ends and is quite a lot.

Male flowers have a central spike and a few lateral branches. Each spike has many flowers. The flower is called spikelet. Spikelet carrying pollen. Pollen began flying for 2 days before the female flowers are ready to accept. Escape of pollen from the male flowers will continue for 8 days in which the female flower is ready to receive it.

Female flowers appear on the axis of the leaf area (leaf axis). Not all leaf axis may issue female flowers, only 1 or 2 axis leaves may be the growth of female flower.

On maize plants, female flowers appear on the center of the trunk, female flowers similar to male flowers in the form of hair. Pollen from male flowers tied by a silk or a major part female flower shaped like hair. Pollen then fertilizes the pistil.

Fruit and seeds: Every single tree produces one or two corncobs, depending on variety. Corncobs covered by leaves cornhusk. Cornhusk leaf green when young, turn into yellowish white when the fruit has old, and dry. Corn cobs are located on the top of the first established and generally larger than those at the bottom. Each ear consists of 10-16 seed line whose number is always even.

The combination of cob, seeds and skin cover is commonly known as the fruit of corn. Corn cob length between 8-20 cm, depending on the varieties and cultivation techniques.

Corn seed is a type of cereal, the average weight of between 250-300 mg. Corn kernels are classified as caryopsis, because corn seeds have a perfect embryo structure, as well as the nutrients needed by the new individual candidates for future growth and progress. Endosperm is the largest part of the seeds, consisting of hard and soft endosperm. In addition to the endosperm, there is still a pericarp, and embryo. 

Endosperm starch composed of anhydroglucose compounds, most of which consists of two molecules, namely amylase and amyl pectin, and a small portion of material between.

However, in some types there are variations in the proportion of corn amylase and amyl pectin content. Corn grain endosperm protein consists of several factions, which are classified based on their solubility into albumin (soluble in water), globulin (dissolved in saline), or prolamine zein (soluble in high concentrations of alcohol), and gluten (soluble in alkali). In most of the corn, the proportion of each protein fraction was albumin 3%, 3% globulin, prolamine 60%, and 34% gluten.

Nutrient content:

Corn kernels are rich in carbohydrates. Most are on endosperm. Carbohydrate content can reach 80% of all dry seeds.

Carbohydrates in the form of starch are generally a mixture of amylase and amyl pectin. At glutinous corn, most or all of the starch is amyl pectin. This difference has little impact on the nutritional content, but rather as a means in the processing of foodstuffs. Sweet corn contains lower amyl pectin, but has more sucrose.

Corn nutrient content per 100 grams:
  • Calories: 355 Calories
  • Protein: 9.2 g
  • Fat: 3.9 g
  • Carbohydrates: 73.7 g
  • Calcium: 10 mg
  • Phosphorus: 256 mg
  • Ferrum: 2.4 mg
  • Vitamin A: 510 SI
  • Vitamin B1: 0.38 mg
  • Water: 12 g
Business and production:

Corn is not only used as food for humans, feed corn is also a good material for livestock, especially poultry. Corn is now an important agricultural commodities in the world, and is cultivated in many parts of the world, be it in a no tropical to tropical. Plant breeding continues to produce the best quality. In developed countries, the agricultural crops of corn have been held in a modern and large-scale.

The United States, China and Brazil are the world's third-largest producer of corn in the world where overall production has reached more than 700 million tons. Of course, the market demand will continue to increase along with the increasing need for food for humans and livestock.

Corn (Maize) as a source of carbohydrate can be grown in all climates, apparently still exciting to be produced as part of the farm business.

Scientific Classification:

  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  • Sub kingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  • Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  • Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  • Class: Liliopsida (dashed one monocots)
  • Sub Class: Commelinidae
  • Order: Poales
  • Family: Poaceae (grasses tribe)
  • Genus: Zea
  • Species: Zea mays L.

Sub species:

  • Flour corn — Zea mays var. amylacea
  • Popcorn — Zea mays var. everta
  • Dent corn  — Zea mays var. indentata
  • Flint corn — Zea mays var. indurata
  • Sweet corn — Zea mays var. saccharata and Zea mays var. rugosa
  • Waxy corn — Zea mays var. ceratina
  • Amylomaize — Zea mays
  • Pod corn — Zea mays var. tunicata Larrañaga ex A. St. Hil.
  • Striped maize — Zea mays var. japonica

Friday, 1 November 2013

Dragon fruit or Pitaya (Hylocereus)

Pitaya or dragon fruit (part genus Hylocereus) is a cactus plant that originated Mexico, Central America, and North America and are now spread all over the world. In the region of origin this plant named pitahaya dragon fruit or pitaya roja. Residents there often utilize this fruit to be served as fresh fruit consumption.

Although originating from North and Central America, dragon fruit became known as the plant from Asia; because this is precisely the dragon fruit has been cultivated on a large scale in several Asian countries, especially the countries of Vietnam, Thailand, and Indonesia. This plant was originally intended as an ornamental plant, because the triangular shape and spiny stems short and has a beautiful flower shaped like a funnel and started to bloom at dusk and will bloom at night.

Characteristic of the tree:

Dragon fruit plant is a climbing plant species. In their natural habitat, these plants live by climbing other plants and epiphytes are not a parasitic plant. In these plants, this plant morphologically is part of incomplete plant because it does not have leaves.

Root: Dragon fruit roots are epiphytes, vines and attached to other plants. In cultivation, made truss rod to knock the dragon fruit plants. The roots of dragon fruit is resistant to drought but cannot stand in a puddle of water for too long. Although the roots removed from the soil, the plant still can live, they can absorb food and water from the air routes that grow on the trunk.

Rooting system of Dragon fruit including shallow rooting, just before production only reached a depth of 50-60 cm, stems roots in the soil is brown. So that normal root growth and could well require a degree of acidity of the soil under ideal conditions, ie pH 7. If the soil pH is below 5, the growth will be slow and the plants become stunted.

Stems and Branches: dragon fruit stem color is bluish-green or purplish. The rod-shaped or triangular elbow, contain water in the form of mucus and encrusted candles when an adult. This stems growing from the branches together with the shape and color stems and leaves to serve as an assimilation process and containing cambium that has its function on plant growth. On the trunk and branches of this plant, grow hard and short spines. Spines located on the edge of the right-angled stems and branches; there are 4-5 spines on each point of grow.

Flowers, fruits and seeds:

Flowers: Flowers elongated funnel-shaped measuring about 30 cm and will start bloom in the afternoon and will be in full bloom at night. After bloom, color inner petals are pure white, yellow stamen inside there, and then will issue a fragrant smell.

Fruit: Fruit elliptic and usually located near the end of a branch or stem. The fruit can grow more than one at any branch or stem, sometimes grow near. Leather pieces about 1-2 cm thick on the surface of the skin and fruit are fins or tassels measuring about 2 cm. Known at this time there are two different skin colors are maroon and yellow. The pulp is white or red depending on the variety.

Seeds: small round and thin but very hard. Seeds can be used as a generative plant propagation, but this is rarely done because it takes a long time to produce. Seeds usually used by researchers to come up with new varieties. Each fruit contains about 1000 seeds.

Nutrient content:
Based on the research of Taiwan Food Industry Develop & Reearch Authorities, it is known that in 100 grams of dragon fruit sugar found some 13 to 18 briks, fiber or dietary fiber a number of 0.7 to 0.9 grams, beta-carotene between 0.005 to 0.012 grams, as much calcium 6.3 to 8.8 milligrams, water levels as much as 82.5 to 83.0 grams, protein with a number of 0.16 to 0.23 grams, fat as much as 0.21 to 0.61, phosphorus 30.2 to 36, 1 milligram, iron 0.55 to 0.65, a variety of vitamins such as B1 as much as 0.28 to 0.30 mg, vitamin B2 with the amount of 0,043 to 0,045 milligrams of vitamin C between 8 to 9 milligrams, niacin contents in the levels of 1,297 to 1,300 milligrams and many others.

Dragon fruit cultivation :

In general , the dragon fruit cultivated by cuttings or sowing seeds . Plants will thrive if planted porous media ( not muddy ) , rich in nutrients , sand , enough sunshine and temperatures between 38-40 ° C. 

If treatment is good enough, the plant will start bear fruit at the age of 11-17 months. Dragon fruit is very adaptive, can be cultivated in various daearah with altitude 0-1200 m asl. The most important thing is getting enough sunlight is a requirement of red dragon fruit growth.

Dragon fruit can be grown with soil conditions and altitude of any location, but the plant will be greedy enough nutrients, so if the soil contains fertilizer is good, then the growth will be good. Within 1 year, dragon fruit tree can reach a height of 3 feet.

Scientific classification:

  • Division      :  Spermatophyta (seed plants)
  • Subdivision :  Agiospermae (seed enclosed)
  • Class          :  Dicotyledonae (dashed two)
  • Order         :  Cactales
  • Family        :  Cactaceae
  • Subfamily   :  Hylocereanea
  • Genus        :  Hylocereus
  • Species: 
  1. Hylocereus undatus (white meat)
  2. Hylocereus polyrhizus (red meat)
  3. Hylocereus costaricensis (super red meat)
  4. Selenicereus megalanthus (yellow skin, without scales)

Tuesday, 22 October 2013

Pangium edule or keluak or keluwak or pucung

The seeds
Pangium edule is a tall tree native to the rivers banks and mangrove swamps of Southeast Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, and Papua New Guinea). The fruit of Pangium edule has its native name keluak, keluwak, pucung, or picung in Indonesia and kepayang in Malay. Pangium edule fruit is a large poisonous fruit, however, through the fermentation process, local residents of the area can change the fruit seeds become an important part of the region's culinary.

Characteristic of the tree:

Kluwek or kepayang is a straight trunked tree; capable of reaching 60 feet high with a trunk diameter of up to 120 cm. Branches are not too tight. The leaves are heart-shaped, with a width of 15 cm. and length 20-cm. dark green and shiny on top, while the bottom is rather whitish and slightly hairy.

This plant grows in the wet tropical rainforest and is a native plant that grows from Southeast Asia to the western Pacific. Kepayang Flacourtiaceae family member who is able to grow in the lowlands up to an altitude of 1,500 m above sea level.

This tree has a taproot, strong and buttresses. While the woody stem, whitish green to gray, round shape and has haired young branches. The plants begin to bear fruit at the age of 6-10 years continuously, especially during the rainy season. 

Kepayang or keluwek (Pangium edule) flowers grown in twig, greenish white, similar to papaya flowers. Flower-shaped is bunches and the crown has a length of 5-8 cm.

Kepayang fruit is elliptical with a tapered tip and base portion, a length of 30 cm and width 20-cm. Kepayang fruit shape like a rugby ball or American football. Fruit skin color is brown, with a slightly hairy surface.

White flesh and soft. A very hard shell, asymmetrical shape, protects Kepayang seed; with a size of 3-4 cm. Seed shell has a texture with blackish brown color. Shell thickness between three sd. 4 mm. Very white flesh colored seeds. Traditionally used by humans is a fruit seed meat, of course after the fermentation process. 

The content and Utilization:

As the name suggests, this plant is able to make people become kepayang (drunk or hungover). This is because, particularly seeds, contain high concentrations of cyanide. Cyanide addition, several other chemical constituents contained in the fruit kepayang (Pangium edule), including vitamin C, iron ions, beta-carotene, hidnokarpat acid, acid khaulmograt, glorat acid, and tannins. 

Seed and the pulp after fermentation
Various substances that make the kepayang, keluwek, Picung or Pangium edule has a wide range of benefits and uses, such as julienne materials (rods), anthelmintic (leaf), antiseptic, bug remover, preservatives, and material for oil (seeds).

Kepayang fruit has another major benefit that is as important herbs in Indonesia and Malaysia: Rawon (Black Soup) is one of the favorite dishes of Indonesia are in absolute need to the seeds of this fruit as the marinade.

To eliminate cyanide acid content, fruit kepayang or kluwek (Pangium edule) which have matured and fallen from a tree collected in a sack and left wet by the rain or even soaked in water within 10-14 days. The fermentation process occurs in the process and content of beef stew with beans will change from white to black.

Substances and essential vitamins in fruit seeds kluwek:

Vitamin C, iron ions, beta-carotene, acid cyanide (poisonous nature, easily evaporate at a temperature of 26 degrees Celsius, if inhaled can lead to the death of animals, safe for fish preservation), hydnocarpate acid, chaulmoogras acid, chlorate Acid and Tannins (as preservative fish).

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz):
(Source: USDA Nutrient Database)
  • Energy 462 kJ (110 kcal)
  • Carbohydrates 23.9 g
  • - Sugars 14.1 g
  • - Dietary fiber 6.2 g
  • Fat 2 g
  • Protein 2.3 g
  • Vitamin A equiv. 19 µg (2%)
  • - beta-carotene 230 µg (2%)
  • Vitamin C 25.8 mg (31%)
  • Calcium 15 mg (2%)
  • Iron 2.2 mg (17%)
  • Magnesium 32 mg (9%)
  • Manganese 0.155 mg (7%)
  • Phosphorus 52 mg (7%)
  • Potassium 151 mg (3%)
  • Sodium 4 mg (0%)
  • Zinc 0.43 mg (5%)

Scientific classification:

  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •    Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •       Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •          Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •            Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •               Sub Class: Dilleniidae
  •                 Order: Violales
  •                    Family: Flacourtiaceae
  •                      Genus: Pangium
  •                         Species: Pangium edule

Monday, 21 October 2013

Leucaena leucocephala or Lead Tree

Leucaena leucocephala or Guage (Mexico); wild tamarind (Corozal, Belize); lead tree (Florida); lamtoro (Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea); ipil ipil (Philippines); jumby bean (Bahamas); false koa, koa haole (Hawaii); tangantangan, tangan tangan, talantayan (Guam, Marshall Islands); talntangan, ganitnityuwan tangantan (Yap); tuhngantuhngan, rohbohtin (Kosrae); telentund (Palau); lopa samoa (American Samoa); fua pepe (American Samoa and Samoa); lusina (Samoa); pepe (Niue and Samoa); nito (Cook Islands); siale mohemohe (Tonga); subabul (India); vaivai (Fiji); cassis (Vanuatu); te kaitetua (Kiribati); kay keo dâu (Vietnam), is a kind of shrub of the legume tribes (Leguminosae, legumes), which is often used in reforestation or erosion prevention. Originated from tropical America, this plant has introduced hundreds of years to Southeast Asia.

In Southeast Asia, especially Indonesia's fruit (locally called Leucaena) used as food and herbal medicines, although in limited quantities. The main use of this tree is for reforestation of degraded land and the wood used for firewood.

Characteristic of the tree:

This tree likes warm tropical climate (daily temperature of 25-30 ° C); altitudes above 1000 m asl may inhibit growth. This plant is fairly drought-tolerant and can be planted everywhere, including in areas with rainfall between 650-3000 mm (optimal 800-1500 mm) per year. However, these plants can not grow in standing water.

Can be grown in any soil condition, easy to adapt to the local climate, easily propagated by seeds that are old, stem cuttings, and with the removal of saplings. Because it is easy to grow, in many places often become rampant weeds. This plant was easy to grow; once pruned, felled or burned, bud-shoots will grow back in large quantities.

Trees or tall shrubs to 20 m; although most only about 2-10 m. Low and much branched, with brownish or grayish, nodule and have lenticels. Branches round the piston, with the tip of the hair tightly.

The leaves are compound and pinnate shaped copies, numbered 3-10 pairs of fins, mostly with glands on the leaf axis, just before the base of the bottom fin; the leaves fulcrum is small, triangular shape. Leaflets 5-20 pairs of each fin, face, the shape is elongated line, 6-16 mm × 1-2 mm, with a pointed tip and base is sloping (not equal), its surface is smooth-haired and frayed edges. The Leaves are bloom at night and closes its leaves at noon.

The flowers are compound form of long-stemmed excrescence, which gathered in panicles contain 2-6 excrescence; each nodule composed of 100-180 flowers, forming white or yellowish balls 12-21 mm in diameter, on top of the stalk 2-5 cm long. Flowers small, amounted respectively-5 for each; petal tube toothed short bell shape, about 3 mm, crown shape, lk. 5 mm, loose-loose. Stamen 10 strands, about 1 cm, separated.

Ribbon-shaped fruit pods straight, flat, and thin, 14-26 cm × 2 cm, with the boundaries between the grains. Green colors of the outer skin and finally greenish brown or dark brown when dry and when ripe the skin covering the seeds will break itself. Each pod contains 15-30 pieces of Leucaena leucocephala seed that lies crosswise in legumes, egg-shaped round eggs breech or upside down, with shiny dark brown color measuring 6-10 mm × 3 to 4.5 mm. The seeds resemble petai fruit, but smaller.


Leaves, flower buds and young pods ordinary engulfed in raw or cooked first. In some parts of Indonesia, the seeds are roasted as a coffee substitute parents, with aroma of coffee tougher. The seeds are already quite old, but not blackened, used as a kind of mixture of local salad there. Young fruit can also be used as a vegetable. The seeds can also be processed into soy substitute with soy nutrition are almost equal. The leaves are also often used as mulch and green manure, the leaves of this tree is decomposed quickly in soil.

The trunk is highly preferred as a wood fire, because it has a calorific value of 19,250 kJ / kg, with a slow burn and produce less smoke and ash. Wood charcoal is very good quality, with a calorific value of 48,400 kJ / kg. Solid wood is included for quickly growing tree size (density of 500-600 kg / m³) and wet wood moisture content between 30-50%, depending on age. The wood is fairly easily drained with good results, and easily processed. Unfortunately, that rarely has a big trunk size; boles are generally short and many knots, because this tree was much branching. The wood is reddish or golden brown, medium textured, hard enough and strong as wood furnishings, furniture, poles or floor coverings.

The leaves and young twigs of this tree utilized as an animal feed and a good source of protein, especially for ruminants. The leaves have a level of 60 to 70% digestion in ruminants, the highest among the types of legumes and other tropical forage

Scientific classification:
  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  •       Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  •           Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  •               Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  •                   Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  •                       Sub Class: Rosidae
  •                           Order: Fabales
  •                               Family: Fabaceae (legumes tribe)
  •                                   Genus: Leucaena
  •                                       Species: Leucaena leucocephala

Sunday, 20 October 2013

Pisum sativum (Pea)

Pisum sativum (Pea) is an annual plant, with a life cycle of one year. This area is cold and plants grown in different parts of the world, planting can take place from winter to early summer depending on location. For the tropical type of pea is grown in areas of high, which is cool, this plant produce peas, when young will be used as fresh vegetables, especially in Asian countries.

The nuts grow wild within the Mediterranean basin and the Near East. Note that the archaeological data, peas has existed since the end of the Neolithic period in the region that is now known as Greece, Syria, Turkey, and Jordan. In Egypt, found the initial date of 4800 - 4400 BC in the Nile delta area, and from ca. 3800-3600 BC in Upper Egypt. Nuts are also present in Georgia in the 5th millennium BC. Peas are present in Afghanistan 2000 BC, in Harappa, Pakistan, and in northwest India in 2250-1750 BC. In the second half of the second millennium BC, this pulse crop appears in the Ganges basin and southern India.

Characteristic of the tree:

Peas or snow peas (Pisum sativum L. ssp. Sativum, the tribe of legumes or Fabaceae) is a kind of vegetable plants are easy to find in markets. Peas belonging to the vegetable fruits, meaning the fruit is eaten as a vegetable and are not classed as fruits, like tomatoes or peppers. This fruit, which is of type pod (legume), harvested when the seeds are still young and not yet full bloom, so that the flat-shaped and are still soft. In the use of these beans as a vegetable, if harvested too old then it will be a thick fibrous, and no longer suitable for consumption.

Peas is still is one of the earliest vegetables consumed by humans. In Asia, there is some evidence of cultivation in the border of Thailand and Myanmar 12 thousand years ago. Pea plants, which grow well in the highlands, grow vines that require support in conducting.

This plant includes seasonal crops in the form of shrubs and vines. The morphology, peas have long stems, small and slender, leaf type compound, pinnate with 2-3 pairs of young leaves, shaped bunches consisting of 1-2 flowers, green petals, leaves consist of 5 petals, numbered petals 5, white, brown, or pink, totaling ten stamens which are divided into 2 files. Ovary consists of 4 -15 ovule.

Pea outer skin color (either the outer skin of fruit and seeds) are usually green, but sometimes there is also a purple or golden yellow, pod-shaped vegetable, widely grown as a winter vegetable crops.

Nutritional value: Consumption of peas is recommended because it contains a number of compounds that are important for the body. The nuts contain a certain amount of energy with details of kilocalories, protein, phosphorus, calcium, carbohydrates, iron, some fat, vitamin A, vitamin B (riboflavin, folic acid, niacin, pantothenic acid, pyridoxine), vitamin C, vitamin K, magnesium and many others. Given its content-rich, pea is very good to eat. Its content of vitamin K can activate osteocalcin were berepran in calcium binding. Thus, we will avoid osteoporosis.

Another benefit is as a pea or anti-inflammatory compounds known as anti-inflammatory, especially for those who suffer from asthma, arthritis, IBS or Irritable Bowel Syndrome is also uric acid. For those who have a cold, snow peas consumption will help reduce the effects of the flu.

Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz):

Energy 339 kJ (81 kcal), Carbohydrates 14.45 g, - Sugars 5.67 g, - Dietary fiber 5.1 g, Fat 0.4 g, Protein 5.42 g, Vitamin A equiv. 38 μg (5%), - beta-carotene 449 μg (4%), - lutein and zeaxanthin 2477 μg, Thiamine (vit. B1) 0.266 mg (23%), Riboflavin (vit. B2) 0.132 mg (11%), Niacin (vit. B3) 2.09 mg (14%), Vitamin B6 0.169 mg (13%), Folate (vit. B9) 65 μg (16%), Vitamin C 40 mg (48%), Vitamin E 0.13 mg (1%), Vitamin K 24.8 μg (24%), Calcium 25 mg (3%), Iron 1.47 mg (11%), Magnesium 33 mg (9%), Manganese 0.41 mg (20%), Phosphorus 108 mg (15%), Potassium 244 mg (5%), Sodium 5 mg (0%), Zinc 1.24 mg (13%). (Source: USDA Nutrient Database)

Scientific Classification:

  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  • Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  • Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  • Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  • Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  • Sub Class: Rosidae
  • Order: Fabales
  • Family: Fabaceae (legumes tribe)
  • Genus: Pisum
  • Species: Pisum sativum L.

Saturday, 19 October 2013

Bilimbi or Averrhoa bilimbi

Bilimbi or Averrhoa bilimbi, originated to Moluccas, Indonesia, the species are now cultivated and found throughout the South East Asia region like Philippines, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Bangladesh, Myanmar (Burma) and Malaysia. It is also common in other Southeast Asian countries. In India, where it is usually found in gardens, the bilimbi has gone wild in the warmest regions of the country.

Outside of Asia, the tree is cultivated in Zanzibar. In 1793, the bilimbi was introduced to Jamaica from Timor and after several years, was cultivated throughout Central and South America where it is known as mimbro. Introduced to Queensland at the end of the 19th century, it has been grown commercially in the region since that time.

Characteristic of the tree:

Small tree, reaching 10 m tall with a trunk that is not so big and has a diameter only about 30 cm. Trunk bumpy and uneven. Bilimbi has a bumpy rough trunk , branching slightly , leaning over him . Young branches velvety smooth haired , light brown color . Bilimbi rods contain saponins , tannins , glucoside , calcium oxalate , sulfur , formic acid .

Bilimbi leaves are compound leaves along 30-60 cm with 11-45 pairs of leaflets. The leaves are green, short-stemmed, oval to oblong with a rather pointy tip, base rounded, flat leaf edge, length 2-10 cm, width 1-3 cm. Bilimbi leaves contain tannins , sulfur , formic acid and peroxide .

Flowering is in the form of malai, a group, out of the trunk or large branches, flower-shaped reddish purple color. The fruit Buni, faceted oval shape, 4 to 6.5 ern long, yellowish green color, when ripe juicy, sour taste. Seeds ovoid shape, flattened. Taste sour fruit, used as a refresher syrup, flavoring dishes, clean the stains on cloth, polish items made of brass, cleaning dirty hands or as a traditional medicine. Propagation by seed and transplants. 

Planted as a fruit tree, sometimes growing wild and are found from the lowlands to 500 m above sea level.

Nutritional value for 100 g of edible portion : 
Moisture 94.2-94.7 g, Protein 0.61 g, Ash 0.31-0.40 g, Fiber 0.6g, Phosphorus 11.1 mg, Calcium 3.4 mg, Iron 1.01 mg, Thiamine 0.010 mg, Riboflavin 0.026 mg, Carotene 0.035 mg, Ascorbic Acid 15.5 mg, Niacin 0.302 mg.

Scientific classification:

  • Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
  • Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (Vascular Plants)
  • Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produces seeds)
  • Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
  • Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two / dicots)
  • Sub Class: Rosidae
  • Order: Geraniales
  • Family: Oxalidaceae (rate-belimbingan starfruit)
  • Genus: Averrhoa
  • Species: Averrhoa bilimbi

Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis)

Jack bean (Canavalia ensiformis), is the geographical origin and spread of South America and Central America. However, has been widely planted in the southern United States since prehistoric times, and have been found at archaeological sites in Mexico dated 3000 years BC. Now this bean has been commonly grown throughout the tropics.

The legume seeds produce a kind of bean that can be used as a source of vegetable protein can be processed in various types of processed foods, although presently, cultivation is not so intensive.

Characteristic of the tree:

Jack bean can adapt well in the humid tropics, but also can survive in periods of drought. These beans can be grown in areas with an annual rainfall ranges from 700-4000 mm. Although Jack bean is a low-lying plant but can also be grown at altitudes up to 1800 m., Best growth in full sunlight but have moderate shade tolerance. These beans tolerant to a variety of soil conditions including acid and covers a land area of arid tropics but are less affected by lack of water or salt content compared with other nuts.

Liana short-lived annual with a deep root system, or creeping shrub with twisted lengths of up to 2-3 m. Accordance with age, stems become woody. Branching growth on the lowest book and some secondary branches also grow.

Leaves alternate, consisting of 3 strands, 11-17 cm long petiole; leaves oblong-shaped round eggs, measuring 5-20 cm x 3-12 cm, tapered or rounded and taper at the top, rarely covered with short hairs on both surfaces , the veins appear and spy nets.

Mauve colored flower to purple, or sometimes white, came out with bunches in the armpit with a swell book which underpins 1-3 flowers on long flower stalks with 2-5 mm. Stems 10-35 cm long bunches, bunches up to 20 cm long, oblong pods, measuring 15-35 cm x 3-3.5 cm, containing 8-20 seeds, each valve with rib hem and there is an extra rib underneath. Seeds elliptical, measuring approximately 21 mm x 15 mm x 10 mm, ivory or white, with long brown hilum 6-9 mm.

Benefits of Jack Bean:

These beans are traditionally used as animal feed, the tree is widely planted as a cover crop, or planted for green manure in rotation with other crops. For fodder, the beans are usually dried before it is given as a livestock feed and can also be stored for inventory. Ripened seeds, then ground and used as a solid food at the farm. Half- ripe seeds are mixed with grain used to feed livestock in Hawaii.

Young seeds and pods are used as a vegetable for human food. 

Mature seeds with boiled or baked foods commonly eaten as tasty in Indonesia, but excluding Japan and tropical Asia, this species are now grown as crops for human food, although the numbers are still small. Seeds are usually burned and ground as coffee mixture. In Indonesia, flowers and young leaves steamed and used as flavorings. Urease is distilled from the seeds is used in the analysis in the laboratory. In Indonesia and China, beans and peas are heated and used as a medicine has been alleged that some of the basic content of the beans may be used for treatment purposes or for pest control.

The common Jack bean is also a source of the lectin concanavalin A, which is used as a reagent in glycoprotein biochemistry and immunology.

Scientific classification:

  • Kingdom: Plantae (plants).
  • Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (vascular plants).
  • Superdivisio: Spermatophyta (plants that produce seeds).
  • Division: Magnoliophyta (plants with flowers).
  • Class: Magnoliopsida (dashed two plants / dicots).
  • Sub-class: Rosidae.
  • Order: Fabales.
  • Familia: Fabaceae (legumes tribe).
  • Genus: Canavalia.
  • Species:  Canavalia ensiformis